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[BIO SCI 38] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (23 pages long)

Biological Sciences
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What are the four principles of the neuron doctrine as proposed by Santiago
Ramon y Cajal?
Neurons are independent, genetically derived units that have a cell body
(soma), dendrite, and axon
Axons could travel distances but terminate at specific locations at
dendrites. Synapse is between axon and dendrite
Electrical activity flows from dendrite to axon
Neurons are the functional units of the nervous system and synapses are
their connections
The brain is made of nerve cells with external membranes
What is Donald Hebb’s relationship to long-term potentiation? What big idea did
he put forth?
There is a strengthened connection between pre and postsynaptic neuron
when repeated firing occurs
Synapses are modifiable by experience and this process is central to
Why has long-term potentiation had such an impact on our understanding of how
the brain forms memories?
What are the three parts of a neuron?
Dendrite, soma, axon
How is that a specific protein, encoded in the DNA as a gene, is able to have
specific functions?
Extracellular signal binds to cell surface, causing change in conformation
of receptor to open channels (activate signaling protein) or transmit info to
signaling protein attached to receptor and activate it.
Signaling proteins modify function of other proteins
Kinase: add phosphate to turn on or off protein
Phosphatase: remove phosphate
G-protein: toggle other protein to turn on or off
Protease: degrade proteins
What is the synaptic plasticity hypothesis of memory?
Changing strength of synapses is the mechanism which memory traces
are encoded and stored.
In classical conditioning, what is the difference between the unconditioned
response (UR) and the conditioned response (CR)?
Conditioned response is unnatural, unconditioned is natural
How does classical (Pavlovian) conditioning measure associative learning?
Dogs learned to associate sound of bell with food coming
What is the main advantage of using invertebrates such as Aplysia for studying
the neural basis of memory?
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