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[BIO SCI 94] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (176 pages long)


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO SCI 94
Professor
Robin Bush
Study Guide
Final

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UC-Irvine
BIO SCI 94
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Ch. 25 Evolution by Natural Selection
& Bioskill 3: Graphs
Week 1 || Lecture 2 || 1.11.2017
Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection challenged special creation, the
explanation for diversity of organisms at the time, which stated:
1) All species are independent and unrelated
2) Life on Earth is young (only 6000 years old)
3) Species are immutable, or incapable of change
Darwin’s theory was radically different
Theories have a pattern and process component:
1)
Pattern
: a statement that summarizes a series of observations about the natural
world
2)
Process
: a mechanism that produces that pattern or set of observations
25.1 The Evolution of Evolutionary Thought
- A scientific revolution overturns an existing idea about how nature works and
replaces it with another radically different idea
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Plato and Typological Thinking
- Plato claimed God created a perfect type of each organism
- The key to understanding life was to ignore these “shadows” or deviations of the
perfect type
- This is typological thinking- basing on the idea that species are unchanging types
and that variations are unimportant or misleading
Aristotle and the Great Chain of Being
- Aristotle proposed that species were organized into a sequence based on
increased size and complexity, with humans at the top
- Also claimed that characteristics of species were fixed and did not change over
time
- In the 1700s, Aristotle’s ideas were still popular in scientific and religious circles
1) Species are fixed types
2) Some species are higher (more complex or “better”) than others
Lamarck and the Idea of Evolution as Change through Time
- Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck proposed a formal theory of evolution- species are not
static but change through time
- He claimed that simple organisms originate at the base of the chain by
spontaneous generation, then evolve by moving up the chain
- Lamarckian evolution is progressive in the sense of always producing larger and
more complex, or “better,” species
- Also claimed that species change over time by inheritance of acquired characters
- Scenario: giraffes develop long necks as they stretch to reach leaves of
high trees, then make babies with long necks
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