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BIO SCI 94 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Echinoderm, Collagen, Germination

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Catherine Loudon
Study Guide

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Bio midterm 2
16. b 15. b 14. b 13. d 12. b 11. c 10.
lec 9
- cellular make up not in viruses
- many bacteria are necessary to life and health
- archaea and eukarya, sister taxa, more closely related
-1. nuclear envelope - eukarya
-2. membrane bound organs - eukarya
- 3. peptidoglycan in cell walls - bacteria
- 4. membrane lipids - bacteria + eukarya, unbranched hydrocarbons // archaea,
some branched hydrocarbons
-5. rna polymerase - bacteria, one kind // archaea + eukarya, several kinds
- 6. initiator amino acid for protein synthesis - bacteria, formyl-methionine //
archaea + eukarya, methionine
-7. introns - bacteria, very rare // archaea, present in some genes // eukarya,
present in many genes
- 8. act on bacterial ribosomes - bacteria, growth inhibited // archaea +
eukarya, growth not inhibited
-9. histones - bacteria, absent // archaea, present in some // eukarya, present
-10. circular chromosomes - bacteria + archaea, present // eukarya, absent
-11. growth at temp > 100C - only some archaea
Bacteria + Archaea
- reproduction - haploid, circular DNA
-no sexual reproduction // reproduce by DNA replication + cell fission
-extra loops of DNA are plasmids
- conjugation - exchange of genetic material, plasmid, between cells
- Fission vs. Mitosis
- fission - prokaryotes/bacteria produce, cell divides into two identical daughter cells
- mitosis - cell w/ nucleus divides into two identical daughter cells
- both - replication of DNA followed by cell division
-genetic diversity - rapid reproduction, large population, mutation, genetic
recombination => transformation, transduction, conjugation
-transformation - uptake of foreign DNA from environment
-R bacteria picked up dangerous genes from S // S and R are same
species, different strains
- transduction - phages carry genes between hosts
-phage inserting DNA // host DNA in phage particle // recombination in
recipient cell
- conjugation - DNA is transferred from one cell to another, one way
-donor + recipient // donor sends out sex pilus, move DNA to recipient
(determined by F factor)
-antibiotics - chemical compounds that kill or slow growth of bacteria
-bacterial diseases - lineages - pathogenic bacteria scattered // occur in all kinds of
organisms // tissues affected are specifically targeted

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-treated by antibiotics // target peptidoglycan
-gram strain - dyes peptidoglycan (purple => gram positive) in cell wall // gram
negative - peptidoglycan layer is thinner + has outer membrane on outside, blocks
-archaean disease - no known pathogens // gum disease
-conjugation and transfer of an F plasmid
-F factor is a set of genes that may occur as a separate plasmid (F plasmid) or
within the bacterial chromosome
-copy of plasmid is transferred to another individual
-single strand moves into recipient, complementary strand is made//donor cells
replaces missing piece
-recombination in recipient
-metabolic diversity - sources of energy (to produce ATP) // sources of carbon (to
produce organic molecules)
-phototrophs - use light energy
-chemotrophs - oxidize chemicals to produce energy
-autotrophs - use CO2
-heterotrophs - need supply of at least one organic nutrient to make others
-cyanobacteria - chemical changes occurring at a global scale // solitary or colonial //
all perform oxygenic photosynthesis // heterocysts perform nitrogen fixation, separated
from oxygen-producing photosynthetic
-domain eukarya
-protists - polyphyletic - all eukaryotes except land plants, fungi, and animals //
unicellular mostly, multicellular, or colonial
-sexual or asexual reproduction
-different types of organelles
-how did mitochondria + chloroplasts evolve?
-endosymbiosis theory - any close + prolonged physical relationship between
individuals of 2 different species
-evidence - if mitochondrial DNA were derived from nuclear DNA early in
eukaryote evolution, it would form a branch, but doesnʼt
-1. anaerobic eukaryotic cell engulfs an aerobic bacterium
-2. bacterium lives + engulfs an aerobic bacterium
-3. eukaryotic supplies bacterium w/ protection + carbon compounds
-evidence for endosymbiosis theory (bacterial origin for mitochondria)
-mitochondria is about same size as bacteria
-replicate by fission
-duplication independent of cell division
-own ribosomes (like bacterial ribosomes)
-own circular genome, like bacteria
-DNA sequence most closely related to alpha proteobacteria
- double membrane

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how did chloroplasts evolve?
endosymbiosis theory
1. aerobic eukaryotic cell engulfs a photosynthetic bacterium (cyanobacteria)
2. bacterium lives and reproduces within eukaryotic
3. eukaryote supplies bacterium with protection and access to light // bacteria supplies
eukaryote w/ oxygen and glucose
- evidence - bacterial origin for chloroplasts
- same size as bacteria
-replicate by fission
- duplication independent of cell division
-own ribosomes (more like bacterial ribosomes)
-dna sequence most closely related to cyanobacteria
- double membrane
- primary endosymbiosis - cyanobacterium goes into cell
- secondary endosymbiosis - for chloroplasts // engulf an already photosynthetic
-transferred by consumption rather than descent with modification
-environment has to exist before split
-chlamydiales are a lineage of bacteria that are all obligate endosymbionts in animals
- diversity of sexual reproduction life cycles in eukaryotes
- 1. animals - gametes => fertilization => zygote/diploid multicellular organism =>
meiosis => gametes/haploid
-2. plants - 2 different stages // spores => mitosis => gametes, inside haploid
multicellular organism (gametophyte) => fertilization => zygote => mitosis =>
sporophyte, diploid multicellular organism => meiosis => spores
-3. most fungi + some protists - haploid unicellular or multicellular
organism - gametes => fertilization => zygote => meiosis => gametes =>
- alternation of generations - diploid sporophyte => haploid spores => gametophytes
=> gametes => sporophytes
- protists closely related to plants
- red algae - mostly aquatic + red // multicellular seaweeds // color comes from pigment
- green algae - mostly aquatic // multicellular, unicellular, or colonial // closest relative to
land plants
- asexual reproduction - fruiting bodies => spores => solitary amoebas => aggregated
amoebas => migrating aggregate => fruiting bodies
- sexual reproduction - fertilization => zygote => meiosis => ameobas => solitary
amoebas go through fertilization
- slime molds - asexual reproduction, can undergo sexual reproduction (fertilization) //
amoeba form aggregation
- land plants - first multicellular colonizers of the terrestrial environment (before
animals) // evolved from algae, ~500 mya
-thought to evolve from multicellular freshwater forms, coleochaete + chara
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