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BIO SCI 94 Study Guide - Final Guide: Eusociality, Photic Zone, Aphotic Zone


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO SCI 94
Professor
Robin Bush
Study Guide
Final

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FORFINAL,KNOWWHATBEESAREDOINGBYDANCING:GOOUTANDFINDFOOD
SOURCEANDCOMEBACKTOTHEHIVE
***Forthefinal:Markrecapturestudiescalculationm2/n2=m1/N
Chapter52:IntrotoEcologyLectureNotes
 Hadleycells:globalcirculationsofair
 hotandwetattropics;at30degreesN/Sdry
 responsibleformuchofglobalclimatethatwesee(CLIMATE,NOTWEATHER)
 climate:dry/wet
 knownamesofdifferentzonesandwhathappensinoceanzones(intertidal,neritic,
oceanic,photic,aphotic)
Chapter52:IntrotoEcologyTextbookNotes:
 ecology:studyofhoworganismsinteractwitheachotherandenvironment
 ecology’sprimarygoal:understanddistribution&abundanceoforganisms
 fivemainlevelsofecology:
Organismal:individualorganism'sbehavior/appearanceinresponseto
environmentalchallenges;howindividualsofonespeciesinteractwitheachother
Populational:how/why#ofindividualsinpopulationchangesovertime
Community:interactionsbetweendiffpopulationsoforganisms
 I.e.predation,parasitism,competition
Ecosystem:interactionsofabiotic(nonliving)&bioticcomponentsof
ecosystems
Global:
 Biosphere:thinlayersurroundingEarthcontainingalllife(sumof
terrestrial/aquaticecosystems)
 atorganismallevel:researchersexploremorphological,physiological,behavioral
adaptationsthatallowindividualstoliveinparticulararea
 population:groupofindividualsofsamespeciesthatliveinsameareaatsametime
 whenstudypopulationecology,focusonhownumber&distributionofindividualsin
populationchangeovertime
 biologicalcommunity:populationsofdiffspeciesinteractwitheachotherw/incertain
area
 communityecologistsaskquestionsaboutnatureofinteractionsbtn.species&
consequencesofthoseinteractions
 i.e.mightfocusonpredation,parasitism,competition
 EcosystemEcology
 ecosystem:allorganismsinparticularregionalongw/nonlivingcomponents
 abioticcomponents:notlivingi.e.air,water,nonlivingpartsofsoil
 atecosystemlevel:studyhownutrients&energymoveamongorganisms&
throughsurroundingatmosphere&soilorwater
 GlobalEcology

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 biosphere:thinzonesurroundingEarthwherealllifeexistssumofallterrestrial
&aquaticecosystems
 youngfieldofglobalecologyisgrowingrapidlyasecologiststrytoquantify
effectsofhumanimpactsonbiosphere
 conservationbiology:efforttostudy,preserve,restorethreatenedgeneticdiversityin
populations,speciesdiversityincommunities,&ecosystemfunction
 biogeography:studyofhoworganismsaredistributedgeographically
 range:geographicdistributionoforganisms
 temperaturehasbigimpactonorganisms’physiology
 bcoffitnesstradeoffs,organismstendtobeadaptedtolimitedsetofphysicalconditions
(abioticfactorsi.e.temp/moistureregimeinwater);everyorganismhasspecificrangeof
toleranceofabioticconditions
 theabilityofspeciestopersistingivenareaislimitedby
biotic
:“living”factors:
interactionswithotherorganisms
 i.e.geographicrangeofTownsend’swarblersexpandingsteadilyatexpenseof
hermitwarblers:bioticfactorislimitingrangeofhermitwarblers
 landformsandoceansthatappearstaticnowhavebeeninconstantfluxforentirehistory
oflifemountainsrise&fall,islands&lakesform/disappear&continentscrashtogether
&breakapart
 dispersal:movementofindividualsfromplaceoforigintolocationwheretheylive&
breedasadults
 differencebetweenSumatraandNewGuinea:
 Sumatra(N/W):tigers,rhinos&otherS.Asianspecies
 NewGuinea(S/E):treekangaroos&Australianspecies
 Wallaceline:separatesspecieswithAsian&Australianaffinities
 deeptrenchinoceanmaintainedwaterbarriertodispersal,evenwhen
oceanlevelsdroppedduringmostrecentglaciations
 humanshavetransported1000sofplants,birds,insectsacrossphysicalbarriers→new
locations:byaccident&onpurpose
 exoticspecies:notnative
 consideredinvasivespeciesifnewarea,spreadsfast&successfullycompetes
withnativespecies
 interactionbtn.biotic&abioticfactorsdeterminesdistribution/abundanceoforganisms
 i.e.Linepithemahumile
:nativetoSouthAmerica&rapidlyexpandingaroundthe
world→pestcontrolprob
 doescompetitionwithnativeantsinteractw/abioticfactorsordoabioticfactorstrump
bioticfactorsininvasivespecies’success?
 basedonstudyofArgentineants*nativeants,conclusion:interactionofbiotic&
abioticfactorsslowedthespreadofinvasiveantsmorethanabioticfactorsalone
 conclusion:abioticfactors(soilmoisture)&bioticfactors(competitionwithnative
ants)interactindeterminingdistributionofArgentineants
 rangeofeveryspecieslimitedbycomboofabiotic&bioticfactorsthatoccurredinthe
past&thatoccurinthepresent

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 52.3ClimatePatterns
 climate:prevailing,longterm
weatherconditionsfoundinanarea
 weather:specificshortterm
atmosphericconditionsoftemperature,precipitation,
sunlight&wind
 whenaverageannualrainfallmapped,areasalongequatorgetmostmoisturevs
locationsabout30degreeslatitudeN/Sofequatorareamongdriestonplanet
 Hadleycell:globalaircirculationcycle
 regionsatornearequationreceivemoresunlight/unitareathusmoreheat
energythanregionsclosertopoles
 @equator:Sundirectlyoverhead(90degreeanglesoEarthgetsmax
solarradiation/unitarea)
 moving→poles,Sunstrikessurface@lowerangles(lessenergy/area)
 decreasingavgtempw/increasinglatitude
seasonalityoccursbcEarthistiltedonaxis
 inJune:N.Hemitiltedtowardssun,S.Hemitiltedawayfromsun(cold)
 rainshadow:whenareasreceivedryair
 whilepresenceofmountainranges→extremesinprecipitation,presenceof
oceanhasmoderatinginfluenceontemp.
 waterhashighspecificheat:largecapacityforstoringheatenergy(lots
ofenergytochangewater’stemp)
 52.4TypesofTerrestrialBiomes
 biomes:regionscharacterizedbydistinctabioticcharacteristics&dominant
typesofvegetation
 diffecosystemsmaybelongtosamebiome
 i.e.SonoranDesertinN.americavsSaharaDesertinAfrica:both
subtropicaldesertbuteachuniqueecosystemw/owncommunityof
indigenousorganisms
 setsofabioticconditionsofclimatethatdistinguishterrestrialbiomes
 temperature
:criticalformaxefficiencyofenzymes&affectsavailabilityof
moisture
 moisture
:requiredforlife&terrestrialorg.losewatertoenvironment
throughevaporation/transpiration(tostayalive,mustreducewaterloss&
replace)
 sunlight
:requiredforphotosynthesis
 wind
:worsenseffectsoftemp.&moisture;increasesheatlossdueto
evaporation/convection&increaseswaterlossduetoevaporation&
transpiration;directphysicalimpactonorganisms(birds,flyinginsects,
plants)
 natureofterrestrialbiomethatdevelopsinregiongovernedby:
 averageannualtemp&precipitation
 annualvariationintemp&precipitation
 eachbiomehasspeciesthatareadaptedtoparticulartemp&moistureregime
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