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BIO SCI 98 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Enzyme, Pyruvic Acid, Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO SCI 98
Professor
Pavan Kadandale
Study Guide
Final

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BIO SCI 98

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Lecture 1
Water
Polar, hydrogen bonds, and liquid
Has a high surface tension
Most living org contain about 70% of water
Water makes up life
Density of liquid water > density of ice
Ice floats on water
In ice, the thermal energy is taken out→ slower movement→ as it
becomes more dense, its bonds form with other H2O molecules
As the temperature increases (gets colder), the density increases as well
Exists in all 3 physical states
Liquid, gas, water
Weak/Strong Bonds
Covalent: strong
Non-covalent: weak
Interactions
● CH3
Methyl, non-polar, Van der Waals and hydrophobic
OH
Hydroxyl, polar, hydrogen bond, no permanent dipole, can participate in
reactions
COOH
Carboxylic acid, polar, Hydrogen bond, lower pH
In order from least to greatest interaction: CH3, OH, COOH
Would CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3→ non-polar and hydrophobic → can pass through
membrane
If it enters the cell, to prevent it from going outside→ change the
functional groups
Weak Interactions Importance
Easily changed→ more dynamic than covalent bonds
Examples:
Base pairing of DNA double helix
RNA-DNA interactions in transcription
Folding proteins
Binding of metabolites to enzymes
A hydrogen bond is weak if the bond where the H meets with FON is bent
Van der Waals forces
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These forces occur due to permanent, transient, or induced dipoles that occur in
all molecules
WEAKEST
The weaker the bond the more temporary it is
Hydrophobicity
Hydrophobic interactions: non-polar (hydrocarbons), “water-fearing” molecules in an
aqueous environment
It occurs because of the hydrogen bonding network of surrounding water, not really
because the non-polar molecules are attracted to each other
Stronger than Van der Waals
When a hydrophobic molecule is in water
Aliphatic (carbon chains) disrupt the water structure
Water cannot H-bond with hydrocarbon
Water must order itself around the hydrocarbon without optimal hydrogen
bonds→ such order is entropically (heat) not favorable
Energetically more favorable for hydrocarbon to separate from water→ oil and
water don’t mix
uses less hydrogen bonds→ more disordered→ higher entropy→ less
stable → more favorable
Lipids should come to mind
Edges of the cluster force the ordering of water
Fewer H2O molecules ordered= increased entropy
Glycolysis
Glc→ G6P aka first step that happens SLOWLY
Is endergonic so it needs to be coupled to an exergonic reaction
Review
Delta G: free energy between products and reactants
Free energy of products - free energy of reactants
Negative: energy released→ spontaneous and exergonic
Positive: energy absorbed→ non-spontaneous and endergonic
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