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[BIO SCI 99] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 25 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO SCI 99
Professor
Olga Razorenova
Study Guide
Final

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UC-Irvine
BIO SCI 99
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Week 1:
Central Dogma-
DNA → RNA → Protein
DNA is in nucleus, proteins are made in cytoplasm.
DNA is a template for its own synthesis
● RNA
RNA Polymerase: opens DNA and makes RNA from template strand.
This is transcription. RNApol is a protein.
rRNA: ribosomal most abundant
mRNA:
tRNA: amino acids are attached to it
Functional RNA: (tRNA and rRNA) make 95% of RNA in cell.
Exceptions: RNA can replicatself. RNA → DNA (reverse transcription & telomerase). Protein
exception- Prions: mad cow disease. Turns alpha helix into beta sheets. (changes protein
structure). Protein affecting protein.
Peptidyl transferase
Structure of DNA & RNA-
Nucleoside = base + sugar.
Glycosidic bond: covalent joining of base to C in sugar, dehydration
Phosphate covalently bonds to 5’C on sugar to form nucleotide
Nucleotide = base + pentose sugar + phosphate group
5’ = phosphate, 3’ = sugar
Purine(planar with small pucker): A&G, Pyrimidine(planar): C&T/U
Phosphodiester bond: 5’phosphate group of one nucleotide connects to 3’
hydroxyl group of the next.
Residues: joined nucleotides
Oligonucleotide: <50 bases. Longer = polynucleotide.
Bases have alternating double bonds
Hydrophobic stacking: minimizes contact w water and keeps stable 3D structure
Base pairing: H bond between amino and carbonyl groups
Minor bases occur that affect structure and function.
Polarity of DNA/RNA: due to free 5’ and 3’ ends.
Backbone is hydrophilic
RNA has OH on sugar and DNA has H.
RNA is more susceptible to hydrolysis.
Proteins- made of amino acids
2 AA = peptide, more = polypeptide
Chargaff’s rules: base composition varies in species, different tissues from same species
have same composition, base composition doesn’t change in given species, A+G=T+C.
Major & Minor grooves exist. One turn is 10.5 base pairs (34A).
Franklin “photograph 51” x ray diffraction = double helical structure. Watson & Crick’s
wire model of winding DNA structure.
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Griffith's experiment: heat killed smooth strain still killed the mouse with rough strain
present bc the DNA was able to get into the rough strain and recombine. Avery then
tested this by removing DNA from the heat killed strain and then it didn't kill the mouse.
Alkaptonuria- Garrod found that that it was caused by a mutation that inactivates a gene
needed for the production of an enzyme and this resulted in a build up the intermediate
that made pee black.
Auxotrophs: mutated spores that don't grow on minimal medium. Beadle and Tatum then
grew these on different medium to see which metabolic pathway was affected by the
mutation. They concluded that each mutation was caused by a single mutated gene =
one gene, one polypeptide (bc some enzymes are made of multiple units each made of
a gene).
Hershey and Chase’s experiment showed that DNA is genetic material. Only the
radioactively labeled DNA transferred into E.Coli, not the labeled protein.
Genomics-
The study of DNA on a cellular scale.
● Genome=gene+chromosome.
Complete haploid genetic complement of a typical cell. One copy of hereditary
info needed to specify organism. Sexual reproducers: one set of autosomes and
one of each sex chromosome.
Contigs- long contiguous stretches of chromosomal DNA. Contigs have Sequenced Tag
Sites and Expressed Sequence Tags.
Intervening sequences (introns): parts of DNA that don’t code for AA.
They get spliced from RNA transcript.
Exons are coding segments.
Different splicing patterns lead to more than one protein made from a single gene.
Only 1.5% is exons.
SSR: simple sequence repeat- 3% of genome.repeat millions of times, used in
metabolism. In centromeres and telomeres
SNPs: single nucleotide polymorphisms- single base variations.
Every human differs by about 1 in 1,000 bps.
Haplotyles: groups of SNP’s inherited together.
○ Que?
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