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BIO SCI 99 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Gene, Dna, Protein


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO SCI 99
Professor
Tatianne
Study Guide
Final

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BIO SCI 99

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LECTURE 1
DNA:
A. Possesses catalytic activity
B. Is the cell's genetic information
C. Is directly involved in protein synthesis
D. More than 1 of the above are true
RNA is produced through the process known as:
A. Translation - RNA to protein
B. Transcription
Protein:
A. Possesses catalytic activity
B. Is directly involved in translation
Is directly involved in transcription
C. All of the above are true
Central Dogma:
Information flows in the direction DNA ---> RNA ---> protein
o DNA acts as a template for its own synthesis
EXCEPTION: RNA viruses
o Use RNA template to make more RNA
EXCEPTION: telomerase
o Synthesizes DNA from RNA
o On RNA template and used to produce DNA
QUESTION: Which of the following is NOT a component of a DNA/RNA nucleotide?
A. A 5 carbon sugar
B. A nitrogen rich base connected to C1
C. A Phosphate group connected to C5
D. An OH group connected to C3
E. All of the above are part of DNA/RNA nucleotides
Nucleic Acid Nomenclature:
o Thymine (DNA only)
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o Uracil (RNA only)
In the scenario below, you have a double stranded piece of DNA and the enzyme
telomerase. Diagram the steps necessary to extend the DNA
o Telomerase has RNA pattern and read single strand to find a DNA pattern
complimentary to the RNA
Will add DNA nucleotides to the strand as well as the appropriate polymers until
it finishes
Then it detaches and goes down to continue the pattern
DNA polymerase (purple) fills in gaps
The Double Helix:
Chargaff's rules: the sum of the purine residues equals the sum of the pyrimidine residues
o Helpful for Watson and Crick
o A + T
o C + G
Franklin's X-Ray diffraction
o Visualize in the picture, the DNA helix, to recreate the model and how nucleotides
were organized
DNA Helix Characteristics
Composed of 2 DNA strands
Have directionality (antiparallel)
Outside of the helix (sugar phosphate backbone)
Inside the helix (H bonded bases) - bases are hydrophobic
QUESTION: Which of the following best describes the polarity of a DNA strand?
A. A phosphodiester backbone is on one side while the bases are on the other
B. Phosphates can only bind to the 5' carbon and not the 3'
C. Only 1 end of a strand has a free phosphate and a 1 free OH
D. Polarity is distinct for an RNA versus a DNA strand
Configuration ends up on the 5' end and 3' which dictates DNA polarity
What keeps a DNA helix together?
Hydrogen bonds
o For example, between G and C [4 hydrogen bonds] and A and T [ 2 hydrogen bonds ]
o Keep the structure together
Base stacking (hydrophobic - inside the helix to minimize contact w/ water)
o More favorable to maintain the structure
o Facilitates structural support and allow hydrogen bonds to be formed
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