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BIO SCI 99 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Reverse Transcriptase, Cell Nucleus, Epigenetics

Biological Sciences
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Lecture 1. Central Dogma and Nucleic Acid Basics
Central Dogma
1. How does the concept of the “Central Dogma” organize our thinking about how information
flow in cells?
2. What are the primary roles of DNA, RNA and protein in the cell?
3. What would the term “RNA-coding” gene mean if it was used to contrast with “Protein-
coding” genes?
4. The “Central Dogma” was proposed before we had a more detailed understanding of things
like RNA viruses, reverse transcriptase activity and epigenetics. How would you extend the
“Central Dogma” to include these concepts?
Nucleic Acid Structure
1. What three chemical building blocks compose a nucleotide? How are they connected?
2. What are the two chemical differences between RNA and DNA?
3. How can the 2’OH on RNA both increase the stability of RNA secondary structure and
decrease the chemical stability of the phosphate-ribose backbone?
4. Describe Watson-Crick base pairing. No need to include which nucleobases have which
specific functional groups.
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