Get 2 days of premium access
Study Guides (380,000)
US (220,000)
UC-Irvine (3,000)
BIO SCI (300)
Study Guide

[BIO SCI E179] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 22 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO SCI E179
Professor
Peter A.Bowler
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 22 pages of the document.
UC-Irvine
BIO SCI E179
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Study Guide
Lecture 6
Wetlands
Are shallow-water habitats with emergent vegetation
They have water-dependent plants (hydrophytic vegetation), alluvial soils (formed
by processes involving water), and are wet at least part of the year
Wetland types are distinguished by water flow and vegetation
Surface water wetlands
receive water from precipitation and surface flows these include surface water
slope and surface water depression wetlands.
Groundwater slope and ground water depression wetlands get their water from
underground sources (the “water table” or subsurface aquifer)
Marshes
have emergent herbaceous vegetation like cattails and swamps sustain woody
(trees) emergent vegetation. Both are “open systems” fed by rivers or streams
are emergent wetlands typically with a regular inlet and outlet of water (open
systems with water flowing in and out). They can be salt or freshwater, inland or
coastal. They are dominated primarily by non woody, emergent herbaceous
vegetation. Marshes are found throughout the United States
open systems (water flows in and out) dominated by emergent aquatic
herbaceous plants such as cattails, bulrushes and sedges, and have submerged
or floating macrophytes such as pondweeds and water lilies (a floating leaf plant).
A major feature distinguishing marshes from swamps is the absence of trees and
shrubs; marshes accumulate peat (organic material which builds up on the
bottom) and have an external source of water - overflow from rivers and streams.
Hydraulic residence time = 4 days; open system (river); productivity to biomass
ratio (P:B) = 1.2 (greater than other types); %organic material is intermediate; pH
5.1 – 7.0 (fairly neutral)
Bogs
are surface water depression wetlands (rain-fed). Water flow in bogs is low or
non-existent. Freshwater marshes and swamps are characterized by a slow but
steady flow of water
typically have a thick layer of floating root masses or peat on the surface and are
highly acidic. They may have no regular inlet or outlet of water, thus they are
dependent upon precipitation for water. Most floating bogs are found in the
northern United States. Pocosins, also a type of bog, are described below. Bogs
are surface water depressional wetlands
Bogs are closed, surface water depressional wetlands. Bogs accumulate peat
and are dominated by acidophilic mosses (notably Sphagnum moss, an
acid-tolerant moss) and sedges. Because of the acidity of their water, bogs have
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

few or no trees or aquatic macrophytes. Since they are sustained by rainfall,
bogs are dependent on replenishment by rainwater
In Canada they are called muskegs and in Europe they are called moors or mires
Hydraulic residence time = 70 days; closed system; productivity to biomass ratio
(P:B) = 0.1 (greater than swamps); % organic matter is greatest (lots) pH 3.6
4.7 (consistently acidic)
Fens
are groundwater depression wetlands (water flows in from the underground water
table or aquifer)
are groundwater depressional wetlands with mineral rich water
Fens have some of the characteristics of both bogs and marshes. They are
distinguished by a mineral rich groundwater source and have a more alkaline
(higher) pH than bogs.
Because they have an external source of water (from the water table) their
hydraulic residence time is short (5 days) when compared with the residence
time of bogs (70 days) that are dependent upon occasional rainfall.
Fens are groundwater depressional wetlands.
Hydraulic residence time = 5 days; closed system; productivity to biomass ratio
(P:B) = unknown; % organic material is highly variable ( 10 – 95) and can be very
low or quite high; pH 5.1 – 7.6 (fairly neutral)
Swamps
are dominated primarily by trees or shrubs and are found throughout the United
States. They are open systems, with water flowing through them. Swamps are
particularly abundant in the south
are open, flow-through systems that contain trees and shrubs (woody emergent
plants), but also a variety of macrophytes in open areas (usually limited by
shading, however).
They accumulate little peat because the trees are not deciduous and there are
not large areas of herbaceous vegetation to contribute organic detritus, as is the
case in marshes.
They usually have an external source of water, such as a river
Hydraulic residence time = 0.4 days; open system (river); productivity to biomass
ratio (P:B) = 0.07 (shorter than other types); % organic matter is smallest; pH 3 –
7 (variable)
Vernal Pools
are naturally occurring surface water depressional wetlands that are covered by
shallow water for variable periods from winter to spring, but may be completely
dry for most of the summer and fall
Vernal (spring) pools are wetlands that are restricted in distribution by climate
and topography. Our Mediterranean climate pools in North America are unique in
that upland plant species have evolved into them, and also in the extent of their
invertebrate endemism
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version