Book notes for Lecture 5?.docx

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO SCI 93
Professor
Diane O' Dowd

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Book Notes • Nucleus contains most of genes in the eukaryotic cell. • Nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm o Double membrane o Pore complex lines each pore and regulates the entry and exit of proteins and RNAs and  macromolecules • Nuclear side of envelope lined by Nuclear lamina­ net­like array of protein filaments that maintain  shape of nucleus by mechanically supporting the envelope o Nuclear Matrix­ framework of protein fibers extending throughout the nuclear interior. • Lamina and Matrix help organize material so it functions efficiently • Chromosomes­ structures that carry genetic information (in Nucleus) o Carry DNA molecule associated with many proteins • Chromatin­ complex of DNA and proteins making up chromosomes o As cell prepares to divide, the chromosomes coil (condense) o Human­ 46 chromosomes in nucleus (not including sex cells­23 chromosomes) Fruit Fly­ 8  chromosomes, 4 in sex cells • Nucleolus­ place where a type of RNA­ ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synthesized from instructions in the  DNA o Proteins assembled with rRNA into subunits of ribosomes, subunits exit nucleus through  nuclear pores, to assemble into ribosomes • Ribosomes­ complexes made of ribosomal RNA and protein, carry out protein synthesis o Free ribosomes suspended in cytosol, bound ribosomes attached to outside of Endoplasmic  reticulum/nuclear envelope • Endomembrane System­ includes nuclear envelope, ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles &  vacuoles, and plasma membrane o Synthesis of proteins, transport of proteins into membranes/organelles or out of the cell,  metabolism and movement of lipids, and detoxification of poisons o Vesicles­ Sacs made of membrane • Endoplasmic Reticulum­ more than half the total membrane in eukaryotic cells o Consists of tubules/sacs called cisternae o ER membrane separates ER lumen/cisternae space from cytosol o Smooth ER­lacks ribosomes  Synthesis of lipids, metabolism
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