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Biological Sciences
Diane O' Dowd

In class quiz 2 lec 15 cell cycle . ▯ 1 Interphase ▯ ▯ G1 - synthesis of macromolecules and cytoplasmic organelles // growth ▯ ▯ S - DNA replicated // Cells DNA organized/condensed into chromosomes ▯ ▯ ▯ chromosome - long DNA polymer w/ linear array of genes + ▯ ▯ ▯ proteins ▯ ▯ G2 - additional growth . ▯ 2 mitotic phase - genetic material divided => cell divides mitosis ▯ interphase - replication/condense // prophase - condensed into chromosomes with 2 sister chromatids, spindle fibers begin forming from centrosomes // metaphase - align at metaphase plate, microtubules attach at chromosomes kinetochore // anaphase - chromosomes separate to opposite poles // telophase/cytokinesis - cleaving of cytoplasm, nucleolus reform in 2 daughter cells mechanics of cytokinesis - cleavage furrow forms after telophase, causing cytoplasm to separate spindle fiber structure - dynein motors and tubulin depolymerization lec 16 mammalian gametes must be haploid - each parent contributes a set of genes to the offspring // meiosis - sexual reproduction => offspring with gene combinations not present in parents Draw a cell with 3 pairs of chromosomes at each stage of meiosis meiosis increases the genetic diversity of the gametes - crossing over and reduction division cause gametes to have different sister chromatids meiosis v. mitosis - meiosis - synapsis, crossing over, reduction, 4 haploid and different daughter cells // mitosis - somatic cell production, 1 genetically identical diploid daughter cells gene - unit of heredity // allele - version of a gene // locus - position of gene on chromosome lec 17 covalent bonds between DNA strands - dna has polarity // covalent pe bonds in backbone => glue, harder to separate topoisomerase - relieve twisting strain by breaking, swiveling, and rejoining DNA strands helicase enzymes that untwist double helix at replication forks => separate parental strands primase - RNA polymerase // starts complementary RNA chain from a single RNA nucleotide, adding RNA nucleotides one at a time/parent template strand
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