Review Questions: Phonological Development (Cited and stated from Dr. Lisa Pearl’s Class
Notes Ling 51)
The IPA is necessary for distinguishing differences across languages, different sounds made
through the throat and mouth, the differences in consonant and vowel sounds, and to account for
the differences in cases where one sound comes from many letters (i.e. beautiful has IPA: [u]),
many sounds come from one letter (i.e. “a” in many), and not one sound comes from one letter
~The IPAis uniform across languages, whereas spelling is not
~The IPAis designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones,
phonemes, intonation, and the separation of words and syllables. Lec 6
Same set of sounds reasoning : describing speech sounds is the same across languages.
Where/how is the air flowing (manner of articulation), where is the air-flow blocked (place of
articulation), what are the vocal folds doing (voicing)?
IPAis different for different languages: “j” is pronounced differently in different languages: 1)
2) Spanish: “Jesus”
3) German: “Jubeln”
4) French: “j’accuse”
Lec 7 -- Babbling starts to occur around 30-36 weeks in infants. First, marginal babbling, then
canonical/reduplicated babbling, and last nonreduplicated/variegated babbling.
Social aspect: babies don’t give any indication that they’re babbling to communicate (no
intentionality at this point) even though sometimes it may look like it. They babble in the car
and their crib, showing no sign that they expect any reply.
Lec 7—Babies’babbling is influenced by the language they hear.
Experiment was performed:
1) Test competent native speakers:
a. Record the babbling of babies who are learning to speak different languages
(i.e. French, Arabic, Chinese).
b. See if native speakers can identify which baby’s babble is from their language
(i.e. asking French mothers to choose betweenArabic babbly and French
babble as French.
c. Result: recordings of 8 month olds can be recognized by language
2) See if babbling features accord with language features:
a. Determine which vowels and consonants appear in babbling, and how
frequently they appear. Compare to target language’s vowels and consonants
(can be subtle though)
b. Result: Japanese and French words contain more nasal sounds than Swedish
and English words; Japanese and French babbles contain more nasal sounds
than Swedish and English babbles c. Result: Mandarin Chinese tone-like pitches to distinguish meaning, and
Mandarin babbles also use these tone-like pitches, while English babbles do
Lec 7:Anewborn’s vocal tract is smaller and shaped differently from an adults (ex: the tongue
fills the entire mouth, limiting range of motion).
Anewborn has a vocal tract like a nonhuman mammal. The larynx comes up like a periscope and
engages the nasal passage, forcing the infant to breathe through the nose and making it
anatomically possible to drink and breathe at the same time.
By 3 months, the larynx has descended deep into the throat, opening up the cavity behind the
tongue (the pharynx) that allows the tongue to move forwards and backwards and produ