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CHEM 1B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Network Covalent Bonding, Coordination Number, Diamond Cubic

Course Code
Sergey Nizkorodov
Study Guide

of 4
Chemistry Midterm 2
Exam Format:
- Multiple choice, matching, open ended problems, ordering questions, and short answers
- 2/17 deal with midterm 1 material
- 4 other problems combine midterm 1 and 2 material
Chapter 12
• Intermolecular and intramolecular forces
– Charge distribution within a molecule.
– Coulomb law and resulting attraction/repulsion between charged particles and between
charged segments of molecules.
– Permanent dipole moment and ion-dipole forces.
– Molecular polarizability and induced dipole moment; dipole-dipole forces.
– Instantaneous dipole moment; London (dispersion) forces.
– Hydrogen bond.
• Viscosity, surface tension, adhesion, cohesion, capillary action
• Unique properties of water
• Exothermic and endothermic phase state changes
• Heats of vaporization, fusion, sublimation and of other phase state changes
• Vapor pressure
• Clausius-Clapeyron equation
• Boiling and normal boiling point
• Melting and normal melting point
• Heating curve of a substance
Intermolecular Forces
- Weaker than the forces associated with covalent bonds
- Several types can be present at the same time
- The following list is from greatest to least, but always consider MASS
oIonic: ions and electrons (strongest), Metallic ions and electrons
oIon-dipole: an ion and a polar molecule
oHydrogen-bonds: O-H, F-H, N-H bound to O, F, or N atom in another molecule
oDipole-dipole: two polar molecules
oIon-induced dipole: an ion and polarizable molecule
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oDipole-induced dipole: a polar molecule and a polarizable molecule
oDispersion: any two polarizable molecules (Can increase with mass)
- Strong intermolecular forces imply:
oHigher melting point and higher deltaH fusion
oHigher boiling points and higher deltaH vaporization
oHigher surface tension
oHigher viscosity
oLower Vapor pressure
Specific heat capacity (Cs)  the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram
of the substance by one degree
- Q = mass * Cs * deltaT
Chapter 13: Solids
Phase diagram, phase boundary, triple point
• Boiling and meting temperatures; effect of pressure on boiling and
• Critical pressure and critical temperature
• Long-range and short-range order in materials
• Crystalline and amorphous solids
• Molecular solids
• Atomic covalent network solids, metallic solids, and atomic
nonbonding solids
• Ionic solids
• X-ray diffraction
• Unit cell, packing order, types of crystal lattices, body-centered cubic
structure, face-centered cubic structure, coordination number
Phase Diagram  graphically represents the boundaries between conditions at which a substance exists
as a solid, liquid, or gas.
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Water is abnormal because it has a negative fusion slope unlike other liquids which have a positive
fusion slope
Types of Condensed Phases
-Amorphous (disordered)
-Crystalline (ordered)
Crystalline solid: possesses a long-range order
Unit cell is the basic repeating structural unit
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