Study Guide Midterm.docx

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Cognitive Sciences
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Al Valdez

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Clinical Psychology Midterm Exam -- Study Guide 1. In what year was clinical psych used in print? The term clinical psychology was first used in 1907 by Lightner Witmer. 2. Define and discuss the boulder, Vail, and scientist-practitioner models. Boulder (Scientist-practitioner Model): -Created in 1949 at a conference in Boulder, Colorado of directors of clinical psychology training programs -Also known as scientist-practitioner model -Emphasizes both practice and research – Graduates should be able to competently practice (e.g., therapy, assessment) and conduct research – A balanced approach Vail (Practitioner-scholar model): -Created in 1973 in a conference in Vail, Colorado -Also known as practitioner-scholar model -Emphasizes practice over research -Yields the Psy. D. degree (not the traditional Ph. D.) -Higher acceptance rates and larger classes -Proliferated in recent years Clinical Scientist model: -Emerged in 1990s, primarily as a reaction against the trend toward practice represented by Vail model -Richard McFall’s 1991 “Manifesto for a Science of Clinical Psychology” sparked this movement -A subset of Ph. D. institutions who strongly endorse empiricism and science -Tend to train researchers rather than practitioners 3. Among clinical psychologists what is the most common mode of treatment? 4. How many PsyDs were awared between 1988 and 2001? 5. What was significant of Dorothea Dix’s efforts? -1802-1887 -Worked in a prison in Boston, and observed that many inmates were mentally ill rather than criminals Clinical Psychology Midterm Exam -- Study Guide -Traveled to various cities to persuade leaders to build facilities for humane treatment of mentally ill -Resulted in over 30 state institutions in US and other countries 6. When was the DSM first published? First psychological clinic founded? The first DSM published was in 1952. Lightner Witmer – 1867-1956 – Received doctorate in 1892 in Germany – Psychology was essentially academic; no practice, just study – In 1896, Witmer founded the first psychological clinic at the U. of Pennsylvania 7. About when did psychotherapy begin to play a significant role in clinical psychology history? -Psychotherapy is the most common activity of clinical psychologists today, but before the 1940s/1950s, it was not a significant professional activity (mid 1900’s) -Treatment was by medical doctors, not psychologists 8. Between 1900-1950 what was the type of treatment for mental illness? 9. What are three ways that the war influenced clinical psychology? -World War II created a demand for treatment of psychologically affected soldiers -Wars have had many other influences on the evolution of assessment and psychotherapy 10. Give an example of a manualized psychotherapy with empirical evidence for efficacy. 11. What are the disadvantages of evidence-based therapies with empirical support? -Threats to the psychotherapy relationship -Diagnostic complications – “textbook” cases vs. “real world” cases -Restrictions on practice – Mandated manuals vs. creatively customized treatments -Debatable criteria for empirical evidence Clinical Psychology Midterm Exam -- Study Guide 12. What percent of psychoactive medications are prescribed by primary care physicians, according to Cummings (2007)? 13. What statement was made in 1952 regarding the efficacy of therapy that has now been disproven? 14. What is the percentage of first-generation immigrants in the U.S. in the year 2000? 15. What does Pederesen mean by the “fourth force?” 16. What does Sue and Sue say about awareness, knowledge, and skills of a psychologist? 17. What does the textbook say about Asian cultures? 18. What perspective focuses on the clients specific cultural norms and considers a client’s behaviors, thoughts, and feelings within the context? 19. What does Foaud (2006) say about competence? 20. Briefly discuss the tripartite model. -Three levels of identity a. Individual level i. Every person is totally unique b. Group level i. Every person is like some others c. Universal level i. Every person is like all others -Clinical psychologists can recognize all three levels for any client 21. What are micoaggressions, microinvalidations? 22. What is an important part of training psychologists to become competent? 23. Define “g” as discussed by Spearman. -Charles Spearman—”g” for general (single) intelligence 24. In which year was the APA code of ethics published? -First published in 1953 -Revised 9 times -Most recent edition was published in 2002 25. IQ measure_________ and educational tests measure _____________. -Intelligence is what a person can accomplish intellectually -By contrast, achievement is what a person has accomplished, especially reading, spelling, writing, or math Clinical Psychology Midterm Exam -- Study Guide 26. Discuss the mental status exam. 27. What is the three-stratum theory of intelligence and what are the 8 broad factors. -John Carroll—three-stratum theory -“g,” 8 broad
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