Lang Review 6.docx

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Cognitive Sciences
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Lang Review 6 1. Terms and concepts: a. Phrases – words cluster into larger units called phrases, based on their grammatical category b. Optional phrase – phrases that can be left out and the sentence will still make sense EX: the goblin chased a chicken in the castle, in the castle is optional c. Repeated phrase – a sentence that uses more than one phrase of the same kind, example using more than one noun phrase d. Moved phrase – EX: in the castle the goblin chased a chicken, phrase is moved to the front of the sentence e. Experimental condition – see if subjects can tell difference between correct order they were supposed to ABCDEF and some other pattern they have never heard ABCDCF f. Control condition – control language, remove one adjacent pair at a time, additional control patterns heard: BCDE, ABCF, ADEF g. Identifying categories – ? h. Identifying phrases – ? 2. One way that we can tell the phrase “the girl who danced with the goblin king in the crystal ballroom” is a noun phrase is because there is a subject, which is “the girl”, who is doing a specific action, “dancing”. The phrase “the girl who danced” means that we are focusing on the girl or the noun and what she is doing in the sentence. The noun can be replaced with pronouns like “he” “she” or “it”. 3. Optional phrases in a language alter the transitional probabilities between phrases in general because optional phrases have lower probability across phrase boundaries than within phrases. 4. Thompson & Newport to use adults in their experiment because they assumed that adults who are learning an artificial language will behave like children who are learning their first language since the adults have no prior experience with the artificial just as children have no prior experience with their first language. This is a reasonable assumption because if children’s brains behave like adults’ brains, then the fact that adults can learn phrases from TP means children should also be able to learn phrases from TP. However it might not be because there are other factors that could interfere such as adults having more cognitive resources to process information or using their native language experience to help them learn something about the artificial language. Just because adults succeed doesn’t mean children will also succeed. 5. Hudson Kam & Newport found that adults and children were presented with an artificial language that used determiners inconsistently in noun phrases. Sometimes determiners would appear and sometimes they wouldn’t. Adults learners matched th
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