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EARTHSS 270- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 14 pages long!)


Department
Earth System Science
Course Code
EARTHSS 270
Professor
elizabethdresscrook
Study Guide
Midterm

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UC-Irvine
EARTHSS 270
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Susintable Ocean Lecture 1. 4/3/17
Class Themes
o How are we connected to the marine environment?
o What are the human impacts to the oceans? What is the science behind the
impact?
o How can we make changes in policy or society to make the oceans more
sustainable for the future?
What is Sustainability?
o A condition in which natural systems and social systems survive and thrive
together indefinitely.
o Meeting the needs of todays without compromising the needs of tomorrow.
o If we take from our environment today without giving anything back, the future
will be impacted.
o People, planet, prosperity.
How are we connected to the oceans? That is, why are the oceans important to protect?
o Climate regulation
o Food provisioning
o Biodiversity maintenance
o Energy (gas, oil)
o Cultural Services (recreation, tourism)
o Economic services
What ae the theats to the aie eioet that ou’e aae of?
o Habitat loss (dredging, urbanization, fishing practices, aquaculture)
o Overfishing
o Invasive Species
Scorpion fish. Used in a case study
o Climate change/ ocean acidification ( two most pressing environemental issues
we have) How it impacts sea level and chemistry of the ocean.
o Pollution, trash and plastic, chemical, pollution of sound.
o Resource extraction. Sand. Oil.
Class will focus on how physical, chemical, and biological factors influence productivity
in the oceans, how humans may impact the sustainability of the oceans, and the steps
we can take to ensure a more sustainable future.
A Brief History of Life on Earth
o Earth is 4.5 Billion Years Old
o ¾ of the plant is covered in ocean water, the water came from volcanic gases
o The Lunar impact formed our moon.
Where did the ocean originate?
o Early earth was volcanically very active!
o Volcanic Gases are primarily h2o
o This water raised to the atmosphere, when water condensed It created the
water to create oceans.
o The atmosphere develops frm volcanic gases.
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o Earth became cool enough, moisture condensed.
o On average, oceans are 4/5 kilometers deep. The deepest part of the oceans are
11 kilometers deep.
o Oceans are very deep, but not compared to their length.
4/5/17 Lecture
Learning Outcomes
Be able to draw and describe a profile of the ocean, from the surface down to the
deepest depths
The Oceans in Profile
The following is the tielie that epesets all of Eath’s histo. Whe i histo did
dinosaurs rule the earth?
o Hadean(Time=0, Earth formation) Archean Proterozoic Phanerozoic
(Present day)
o These ae the fou ai eos, assie aout of ties of eath’s eistee.
o Hadea= Eath’s oe foatio. Moo foatio, eath foatio.
o Archean= Beginning of time period, first evidence of life has appeared. Microbio
material, not human or animal life.
o For about 3 ½ billion years, there was nothing but micro life.
o Proterozoic= First evidence of plants, plants that produce oxygen.
o Phanerozoic= diversification of life, this is when dinosaurs lived.
Subdivision of timeline: Eons, Eras, Periods, and Epochs.
A brief history of life in the oceans
The Cambrian Explosion
o Life in the oceans remained mostly microbial for 3.5 billion years.
o Suddenly, in the Camrbian, life exploded
o A liig  as ae
o Possibly due to increased O2 levels
o Survival of the fittest, eat or be eaten. Animals started forming shells and
protection levels.
o Increased oxygen levels, increased movement. Aerobic respiration was formed.
Before that, we had anaerobic respiration which was reduced forms of breathing
in and out as humans do today.
o Abundance life came to life.
Moving on, the old Man and the Sea
o Modern humans evolved 200,000 years ago in Africa, migrated over the
continents
o It is likely that early humans were well connected to bodies of water
o When migrating, had to remain close to water
o Humans are well connected to bodies of water, that is because we dehydrate
very easily. We know we were always present to water because without water
e ould’t e ale to oe.
o Pygean form of continents had not yet evolved.
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