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[EARTHSS 5] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 13 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Earth System Science
Course Code
EARTHSS 5
Professor
Elizabeth Crook
Study Guide
Midterm

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UC-Irvine
EARTHSS 5
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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ESS5 The Atmosphere Midterm Study Guide #4
Lecture 8:
Buoyancy: tendency of a less dense material to rise up and float on top of a more dense
material
Oogaphi liftig: ai defleted upwad y outais aishadow aeas ad desets
Frontal lifting: buoyancy deflects warm air masses over cold air masses
Convergence: winds converge and air is forced upwards
Localized convection: buoyancy lifts warm air parcels
“tati staility: ais suseptiility to otiue isig oe iitially uplifted
Environmental lapse rate: actual temperature of surrounding still air at each altitude (varies
with time and location)
Adiaati lapse ate: how uh ai paels tepeatue will hage whe lifted peditale
process)
Ai is…
Absolutely unstable when it continues to rise (ELR > 10 degrees C)
Absolutely stable when it is resistant to rise (ELR < 5 degree C)
Conditionally unstable (5 degree C < ELR < 10 degree C)
Cloud types based on height:
High clouds (above 6000 m)
o Trap more heat = result in warming
Middle clouds (2000-6000 m)
Low clouds (below 2000 m)
o Reflect more sunlight = result in cooling
Vertically extensive
o These clouds may extend throughout much of the atmosphere (Ex. cumulus,
cumulonimbus)
Feedback loop to show the effect of water vapor and clouds on global temperature:
Lecture 9:
Clouds: mass of condensed water vapor floating in the atmosphere
Peipitatio: liuid wate o ie that falls to Eaths sufae
Why do soe louds ause peipitatio ad soe dot?
Because clouds droplets must grow big enough to fall
Terminal velocity: the speed at which gravity = drag
Drag: force depends on rate of fall and surface area of droplet
o With increasing size, the force of gravity will increase more than the drag,
therefore the droplet will have faster terminal velocity
How ice crystals/cloud droplets grow in warm vs. cool/cold clouds:
Collisions/Coalescence
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o Different sized droplets have different terminal velocities
o Large falling drops compress air beneath it, sweeping aside very small droplets,
colliding with others
Bergeron process
Riming
o Falling ice crystals freeze super cooled droplets on contact, producing larger ice
particles
Aggregation
o Falling ice crystals collide and stick to other ice crystals which forms snowflakes
Forms of precipitation:
Snow
o Tiny crystals of frozen water vapor
o Ice crystals grow as they fall by deposition of water vapor
o Temp from cloud to round must stay below freezing, so the crystals can remain
in solid form
o Molecular structure controls the properties of ice
Rain
o Collusion/coalescence produces rain in warm clouds in tropics
o Bergeron process, riming, and aggregation forms ice crystals in cool/cold clouds
which melts to form rain if temp below the clouds are above freezing
Graupel
o Ice crystals with extensive riming (soft hail
Hail
o Concentric layers of ice grow around graupel
Sleet
o Rain droplets freezing mid-air (common with warm front)
Freezing rain
o Supercool rain droplets freeze on surfaces
Cloud seeding
o Introduce materials into clouds to stimulate precipitation by Bergeron process
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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