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University of California - Irvine
EDUC 108

Families: G. Stanley Hall + Anna Freud → family turmoil is universal and inevitable and that ALL adolescents rebel against their parents and experience intense conflict -generation gap is seen more in matters of personal taste that core values -parents = right and wrong | teens = matter of personal choice Baumrind's parenting styles: 2 critical dimensions of parenting: Parental responsiveness (warmth) Parental demandingness (control) -Authoritative: high response, high demand → warm but firm -Authoritarian: low response, high demand → obedience and control -Permissive: high response, low demand → accepting and passive -Dismissive: low response, low demand → minimal time and energy give to child Traditional parenting style: -expects compliance by virtue of cultural beliefs supporting the inherent authority of the parental role Parenting effects: reciprocal/ bidirectional effects Differential parenting: -non-shared environmental influences → adolescents experience quite different family environments and the consequences of these differences are evident in adolescents’ behavior and psychological functioning -adolescents who differ in temperament are affected in different ways by similar parenting style The changing family: Divorce -the process of the divorce is what affects adolescents the most (quality of relationships is important) -marital conflict and disorganized parenting can lead to adverse outcomes for the adolescent Sibling relationships: -sibling conflict increases -relationships become more equal/ more distant/ less emotionally intense 5 common sibling relationship patterns: -caregiver → most common in traditional cultures -buddy -critical -rival -casual Friends and Peer Relationships: Peers - people who are within the same age group Friends - people with whom you develop a valued, mutual relationship Time spent with family decrease (~28 minutes per day with parents) Time spend with friends increase (~103 minutes per day) Types of friend relationships: Friendly Intimate - more common in girls and emerging adults Integrated Uninvolved Friends and risk taking behavior: Correlation strong in mutual friendships and close friendships -adolescents generally perceive their friends as more similar to themselves than they actually are in their alcohol/ drug use and sexual attitudes → egocentrism -selective association - most people tend to choose friends who are similar to themselves 4 types of friend support: Informational - advice and guidance in solving problems Instrumental - help with tasks of various kinds Companionship - being able to rely on each other Esteem - encouragement and consolement Cliques: -small groups of friends (3-12) who know each other well, do things together and form a regular social group Crowds: -larger, reputation based groups of adolescents who are not necessarily friends. Do not spend time together Changes in structure: -middle school →(2) in and out crowd -early high school → more influential: skaters, jocks, punks, nerds, etc. -later high school → more differentiation: skaters who are gamers, more niches for people to fit into (less influential) Relational aggression: -non physical form of aggression (rumors, gossip, excluding) -may include non-verbal behaviors; covert and indirect Sociometric research: Sociometry - research in which students rate the social status of other students Social skills - quality most often associated with popularity/ unpopularity -physical attractiveness and social skills are factors related to popularity at all ages -rejected adolescents: actively disliked by their peers -neglected adolescents: do not make enemies and do not make many friends -controversial adolescents: generate mixed responses from their peers (highly aggressive, but also high in social skills) Bullying: Extreme form of peer rejection 4 elements of bullying -aggression (physical or verbal) -repetition -power imbalance -negative effects for both the victim and bystanders (exposure) Intimacy and Sexuality: Intimacy → an emotional attachment between two people characterized by concern for well- being, willingness to disclose private info, sharing of interests and activities Gilligan’s care orientation vs. Erikson’s identity vs. role confusion/ intimacy vs. isolation Girls → dating relationships may provide a context for further expression of intimacy Boys → dating relationships may provide a context for further development of intimacy Why do adolescents form love relationships: -recreation -learning -status -companionship -intimacy -courtship Dating scripts: -proactive script (male) → initiating the date, deciding where to go, controlling public domain, initiating sexual contact -reactive script (female) → private domain (groom and dress), responding to public domain gestures, responding to sexual initiatives Sternberg’s theory of love: 3 fundamental qualities of love Passion → physical attraction and sexual desire Intimacy → closeness and emotional attachment Commitment → pledge to love someone over the long run -consummate love encompasses all 3 components -for adolescents, commitment is missing or highly tentative Cultural beliefs towards sexuality: Restrictive → strong prohibitions on sex before marriage, strict separation of boys and girls, usually more restrictive for girls than boys (USA) Semi-restrictive → prohibitions not strongly enforced and easily evaded (Netherlands) Permissive → encourage and expect sexuality -permissive countries have lower rates of teen pregnancy and STIs In America, we use language around sex that is similar to the type of language we use when talking about addiction (drugs/ alcohol) or negative thoughts -as thou
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