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Final

FLM&MDA 85C Study Guide - Final Guide: Paul Otlet, Vannevar Bush, Memex

11 pages96 viewsSpring 2018

Department
Film and Media Studies
Course Code
FLM&MDA 85C
Professor
Peter Krapp
Study Guide
Final

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What is the big idea?
Providing for the deposit, delivery, and continued revision of linked documents, servicing
hundreds of millions of simultaneous users- with hypertext, graphics, audio, movies, and
other hypermedia
like a “generalized footnote”-total annotation that is no longer secondary to anything that
takes a dominant primary role
Nothing is as important as the original inspiration
Desk Set: the challenge of the electronic brain
Machines that will cross reference and associate things
1947 was a crucial year for the very first generation of commercial computers
The international standards organization
Spencer Tracy: premonition of machines replacing people
It was a very successful play in London first
Bunny Watson: loosely based on real person Dorothy Boyle of Research Department at
CBS in New York
Federal Broadcasting Company
EMERAC: idea model
The promise of the memory expenditure
You can associate many things with many things
From Memex to WWW notes on the archeology of multimedia
All collections are property of the nation
Forefathers of the web
Many commentators place Vannevar Bush’s speculations about a memory extender or
memex at the imaginative source of hypertext
But there are also other forefathers of the web: Paul Otlet and HG Wells
HG Wells: World Brain
Paul Otlet: Mundaneum
- Features of Otlet’s vision
1. A Scholar's workstation
2. A hypermedia memex
3. Multi media substitutes for the book
4. Universal network for documentation
5. A kind of internet
Otlet was convinced that the external makeup of a book its format the personality of its
author were unimportant provided that its substance its sources and its conclusions
become part of the collaborative organization of knowledge
Vannevar Bush: Memex
- A memex is a device in which an individual stores all his books, records and
communications and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding
speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory.
- Memex would also employ new retrieval techniques based on a new kind of associative
indexing “the basic idea of which is a provision whereby any item may be caused at will
to select immediately and automatically another to create personal trails through linked
documents.
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- Often overlooked aspect: not just facts and information
- Memex is a form of desk would instantly bring files and materials on any subject to the
operator's fingertips
What bush foresees
1. Cyclops Camera
2. Microfilm
3. Vocoder
4. Thinking machine
5. Memex
- One can now picture a future investigator in his laboratory. His hands are free and he is
not anchored
The WWW circa 1945
Selection: the heart of the problem and of the personal machine we have here
considered is the task of selection. And here in spite of
- Following a chain of command is an efficient way of communication
- 2 essential features of hypertext: nodes and links
- Due to the modularization of text, nodes may be accessed in any sequence that meets
the information needs of the user
Week 2
How did we get here?
- Great man theory of history
Alan Turing, John Von Neumann
- Great machine theory of history
Colossus, ACE Pilot
The net and its metaphors
- From the prehistory into the history of net and web
- Memex
- No longer organize info in classes
- Instead organized by associations
- Some historians of digital cultures argue that all desktop computing metaphors are
essentially inherited from Vannevar Bush
Interface metaphors
Hypertext
Nelson’s Vision
- Links that evolve dont break
- Transclusion (implicit copyright)
- Version control (alternatives would be transcluded next to each other)
- Reader autonomy: view and manipulate
- royalities (micro-payments, franchises)
Literary machines
- Nelson complains that hypertext as adapted by berners-lee and andreesen is still paper
model
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- Only one way links
- No marginal notes
- No annotation
Internet History
- How old is it really?
1. In the 1960s computers were large and expensive
2. Universities and researches needed computers
3. The available models were often so different as incompatible with each other
4. Resource sharing would help a great deal
- The IMP
1. In the 1960s computing experts developed the idea that instead of adding networking
- Domain name registry
1. .com, .gov, .edu
Week 3 Lectures
Americans hold strong views about privacy in everyday life
Yet we don’t always act on our own convictions
Very few people are confident that the trust of certain companies will be upheld
to keep records private and secure
Those who have heard “a lot” about government surveillance hold stronger views about
certain data retention
Financial engine
Advertising is the financial engine of the internet
Despite innovations in subscription, fee-based, and other kinds of distributions,
advertising remains by far the most dominant model supporting ecosystems of
content creation
Convenience overrides privacy
Discomfort
People don't like ads
Always already in decline
Most methods of advertising decline in effectiveness and value over time
Generational changes in consumer tastes, fatigue around certain types of
messaging, and a changing media landscape require innovations in advertising-
this was true long before the advent of the Internet
Nothing new here
Already in 1759 people were complaining about advertising
Difference media create different types of avoidance
Advertising avoidance in different media
Internet, tv, and radio are where advertisements are most avoided
Brief History
First banner ad was in 1994 it earned a 78% click-through rate
By 2011, the average facebook ad sits at 0.05% click-through
Novelty?
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