HISTORY 40B Midterm:
7 pages32 viewsWinter 2019
Course CodeHISTORY 40B
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Key Questions Weeks 1-5
1. What is the difference between primary and secondary sources?
The primary source is written down by people who we living at that time and attended the
events. It is usually a personal account of the events described in the text. The secondary
source is more of an analysis of those personal accounts made later on in time to try to
explain those personal experiences better
2. What is historiography?
How certain historians view specific events that occurred in history. The science of
reaching conclusions from the events that occurred in history. An example of that is the
three historians: Joyce Appleby, Forrest McDonald and Annette Gordon-Reed who had
different opinions about Jefferson given the historic events that occurred at the time.
3. What were the boundaries of the American state and its democracy at the beginning of
the 19th Century?
The boundaries of the American state were from the east coast to the Mississippi river.
On the left of the Mississippi river is Louisiana, which was owned by the French and
acquired by the US in 1803. This purchase of land extended the US’s boundaries left until
the Spanish territory. At the time citizens who had the right to vote were white
landowners, this excluded the majority of the country’s population. Therefore democracy
was only applied to a very small fraction of the population. However, during the early
part of the 19th century, nearly all white men were given the right to vote, while women
and African Americans lost any kind of voting rights.
4. The Declaration of Independence claims: “We hold this truth to be self-evident, that God
created all men equal.” What did this mean in 1800? Which groups were considered
citizens and which were not?
Even though the Constitution states that “all men are created equal,” in practice, not all
men (and women) were treated equally. Although this argument justifies the ending of
slavery in the United States, citizenry only applied to most white men in the early 1800s.
Women, African Americans, and Native Americans were not considered citizens in the
5. Why and how did the role of women change in republican society?
“They must be the stewards and guardians of their husbands' property. That education,
therefore, will be most proper for our women which teaches them to discharge the duties
of those offices with the most success and reputation. It becomes us therefore to prepare
them, by a suitable education, for the discharge of this most important duty of mothers.
The equal share that every citizen has in the liberty and the possible share he may have in
the government of our country make it necessary that our ladies should be qualified to a
certain degree, by a peculiar and suitable education, to concur in instructing their sons in
the principles of liberty and government.” This role changes when women started
working in factors like the women working in the Lowell factory system.
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6. How was Marbury v. Madison and the fight over Federalist judges important to the
development of American governance and democracy?
The Constitution is the “fundamental and paramount law” and is “emphatically the
province and duty of the judicial department to say what law is.” Upset the balance of
power between the national government and the states – making clear that the courts have
the power to nullify laws deemed unconstitutional. Separate but related acquittal of
Justice Chase in impeachment hearings represented acceptance that judicial appointments
should not be based upon nor disapproved of for partisan purposes.
7. What were the causes of the War of 1812 and what was its significance?
France and Great Britain at war in 1804: U.S. declared neutrality and took control of
shipping from the Americas and Europe. Neither country recognized neutrality – hurts
shipping and trade. Jefferson unable to declare war; he had dismantled the military.
Embargo Act of 1807: disastrous effort that stopped American exports to Europe and
prohibited American ships from trading in foreign ports. Non-Intercourse Act of 1809:
American ships can trade with all nations except Britain and France, until they
recognized neutrality. France recognized America’s neutrality – new trade caused an
economic depression in Britain. June, 1812: Britain was forced to recognize American
neutrality, but war had already been declared. Declaration of war reflected concerns
about Native American populations manipulated by British in the West. War was
simultaneously fought against British in the Atlantic and hostile Native Americans under
British influence in the West. Americans plundered Native American villages at Put-in-
Bay on Lake Erie; Andrew Jackson defeated Creek Indians and forced them to accept a
treaty that ceded the best lands to the Americans. Affirmed the importance of a strong
national government. Vacated the west. Presented the United States globally as a strong,
modern nation; America defeated Britain twice in thirty years. Promoted American
patriotism and culture.
8. Why was the journey of Lewis and Clark significant to President Jefferson’s agenda?
How might the expedition be viewed as a metaphor for American ideals?
Opened a route to the West. Native Americans, through interactions, began to depend less
on environment and spiritualism and more on a dependence on traders and the military.
Promoted adventure and science: metaphor for Americans on the road, even if it wasn’t
responsible for trade, pioneer routes, or the legal framework for American settlement of
the Pacific Northwest.
9. The readings for Week 2 include secondary sources that evaluate the presidency of
Thomas Jefferson. In what ways can Jefferson be seen as a champion of liberty? In what
ways was he not?
Joyce Appleby: flawed diplomacy, but a liberal democrat. “Jefferson instilled the nation
with his liberal convictions. That is, he succeeded in limiting the scope of government
while protecting the informal public realm where people could form organizations,
engage in politics, and freely trade wiht one another.” Forrest McDonald: Reactionary
Ideologue. “...to regard Jefferson as an apostly of abstract liberty, with the connotations
that later generations would impart to it, is a distortion of history and a perversion of his
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