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[HUMAN 1A] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (40 pages long!)


Department
Humanities
Course Code
HUMAN 1A
Professor
Rodrigo Lazo
Study Guide
Final

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UC-Irvine
HUMAN 1A
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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September 28, 2016
The Roman Empire
Defining Terms
1. What do we mean by ‘Roman’?
referring to Rome = a city in the middle of Italy (traditionally founded in 753
BCE), originally a tiny city-state
‘Roman’ (and ‘Ancient Rome’) can refer to the Roman Empire, the vast
collection of territories that Rome conquered and ruled
“Roman” gradually becomes a broad legal, political, and cultural category
(rather than a narrow geographical one), has to do with…
process of Romanization and grants of citizenship
gradual induction of conquered elites into imperial power structures
emperor Caracalla (ruled 198-217 CE)
born in Gaul (modern-day France), of mixed Syrian and Punic (i.e. African)
descent
but without a question, a Roman emperor
2. What do we mean by ‘Empire’?
a notional geographic entity with flexible borders and a proclivity for
expansion that places an extensive group of peoples and/or territories under
a single supreme authority
territory invested with certain elements
controlled by armies, sense of belonging (people culture, etc.)
pantheon - “all the gods”
represents Roman imperial power
largest unsupported dome
Latin inscription – (General) Marcus Agrippa
turned into Christian church – art inside destroyed
Three Stages of Roman History
1. Regal period: 753 (traditional date) to 509 BCE
Rome ruled by Etruscan kings
2. Republic: 509 BCE to 31 BCE
Rome principally governed by Senate
3. Imperial Period: 31 BCE – 476 CE
Rome ruled by an emperor (presiding over Senate)
first one – Augustus
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Early Republic: Conquest of Italy (completed around 272 BCE)
slow, methodical progress over centuries
characteristically generous treatment of defeated groups, loosely incorporated
into Roman ‘state’
mainly want soldiers for the army
characteristic determination: defeat never final; failure not an option
cf. “Pyrrhic victory” - such a high cost that it’s not a victory at all
practice of decimation – execution of one out of ten soldiers
legion have poor performance on battlefield
lottery between ten soldiers, beat in back of head by other soldiers in
subdivision
Three Punic Wars
1st: 264-241 BCE
Rome creates navy
giant spearhead on front of ship to ram other ships, pull out method
Sicily made first province of RE
50% of male population killed
2nd: 218-201 BCE
Hannibal crosses Alps, invades Italy and brings elephants
Carthaginians want revenge, over possession of Spain
3rd: 149-146
Carthage destroyed
Romans show their resilience
Rome becomes an international power (both land and sea)
new territories acquired outside Italy
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