Review session 5 ling 51 final.doc

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of California - Irvine

Review Questions: Morphological & Syntactic Development (Cited and Stated Directly from Dr. Pearl’s Class notes final review session 4) B/c nonsense sentences can have clear syntax but be incomprehensible when the syntax is nonsense. On the opposite spectrum, ungrammatical sentences can make perfect sense so meaning is not solely determined byword order. Early sentences tend to be imperatives (commands) as well as affirmative, declarative statements and telegraphic speech. Questions and negations come later. Imperative sentences dominate earlyon. Typical grammatical categories included in children’s multi-word speech include nouns, adjectives, and verbs. Typical categories missing: determiners (the, a), prepositions (to, by, from) auxiliary verbs (am, are, was), bound morphes (-s plural marker) Basic division of meaning: more contentful vs. more grammatical Morphologically rich languages are not necessarily more difficult for children to learn. Regular/predictable systems are easier for children to learn than languages that have multiple exceptions (like English often does). Development is gradual (though may have spurt-like parts), and there are large ranges—not all bound morphemes come in at the same time. The order of acquisition for bound morphemes in English does appear to be similar across different children, however (even if their rates of development are quite different). Having a predictable system does not mean a language is necessarily easier to learn. A regular morphologically rich language like Turkish is no harder for Turkish children to acquire and learn the inflected forms (i.e. ‘laughed’) before they even combine words in multiple word utterances. Strategy would work example: works well for active sentences and meaning matches word order (“ The knight bumped the dwarf; actual event; knight-bumps-dwarf- = matches word order!); also works well for sentences where order of mention is the order of action; (lecture 13 notes) Strategy would not word example: does not work well for passive sentences (“The knight was bumped by the dwarf” ; actual event: dwarf-bumps-knight = does not match word order); does not work well for sentences where order of mention does not match order of action Children have knowledge of grammatical constructions even before they can produce all the words themselves—and what was previously that to be telegraphic speech might just be a severe form of “baby accent” Evidence: 2 to 3 year old French children have phonetic placeholders for auxiliary words like am and are and use them as they would use the actual words; they realize that something goes where the auxiliary words are meant to be (emit puffs of air sometimes too) Evidence: Children who are telegraphic speakers prefer to respond to full commands like “Throw me the ball” vs. their own telegraphic speech; they understand the correct way to say it Evidence: Children are particular about which grammatical morphemes occur where; they can tell the difference between “Find the dog for me” vs. “Find was dog for me”; kids are sensitive to incorrect words Sequence of grammatical development that occurs in comprehension si like the sequence in production but it occurs ealier: Grammatical competence seems to be achieved fairly early. However, grammatical rules are acquired quickly. This places constraints on what kind of developmental theory can be proposed, because it must account for this speedy acquisition theory. Language has a Zipfian distribution: relatively few items are used very frequently while most items occur rarely, with amny occurring only once in even large data samples ~Small number of words occur infrequently ~Most of the words you hear are the same stuff To attain full linguistic competence, the child learner must overcome the Zipfian distribution and draw generalizations about
More Less

Related notes for LINGUIS 51

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.