PHILOS 2 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Soundness

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Published on 18 May 2016
School
UC-Irvine
Department
Philosophy
Course
PHILOS 2
Professor
Midterm Study Guide
Lectures 1-2
What is an argument?
-An argument is a series of statements where the last statement follows or is supported by
the initial statements
-Based on premises that establish a conclusion
The difference between inductive and deductive arguments
-Inductive-premises support the truth of the argument but don't guarantee it
-Deductive- truth of the premises guarantee the truth of the conclusion
Differences between deductive validity and soundness
-Validity is when the premises are true as well as the conclusion (a valid argument can
have false premises; if the premises are true the conclusion will be true)
-Soundness is having a valid argument and the conclusion happens to be true
What is a proposition?
A proposition is the meaning of what we say or think; they can either be true or false;
statement that can express the same thing in different languages
What does it mean for a statement/proposition to entail another statement/proposition?
Conditional statements P->Q Q->P
When is an argument circular?
When you use the conclusion to establish the argument-- based on the assumption that the
conclusion is already true
What is a paradox?
A paradox is an apparently acceptable conclusion derived by apparently acceptable
reasoning from apparently acceptable premises
Explain the conceptual distinctions
A Priori/A Posteriori
A Priori: knowledge independent of experience (ex:math)
A Posteriori: knowledge dependent on experience and empirical evidence
Analytic propositions/Synthetic propositions
Analytic propositions: true in virtue of their meaning
Synthetic propositions: true in virtue of how their meaning relates to the world
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Document Summary

An argument is a series of statements where the last statement follows or is supported by the initial statements. Inductive-premises support the truth of the argument but don"t guarantee it. Deductive- truth of the premises guarantee the truth of the conclusion. Validity is when the premises are true as well as the conclusion (a valid argument can have false premises; if the premises are true the conclusion will be true) Soundness is having a valid argument and the conclusion happens to be true. A proposition is the meaning of what we say or think; they can either be true or false; statement that can express the same thing in different languages. When you use the conclusion to establish the argument-- based on the assumption that the conclusion is already true. A paradox is an apparently acceptable conclusion derived by apparently acceptable reasoning from apparently acceptable premises. A posteriori: knowledge dependent on experience and empirical evidence.