PHILOS 2 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Determinism, Neuroscience, Fatalism

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Published on 22 May 2016
School
UC-Irvine
Department
Philosophy
Course
PHILOS 2
Professor
Philosophy 2
Midterm Study Guide Part 3
Free will- the idea that agents sometimes act and choose freely.
If subject S has the option of choosing something other than A then subject S has free will
Causal Determinism- every event is causally determined to occur by some other events
Every event that occurs is the result of earlier causes and natural laws
Common in science- particularly neurobiology and psychology
Fatalism- present and future are fixed; whatever happens now or in the future happens
necessarily; Both Causal determinism and fatalism undermine the existence of free will
Hard Determinism- complete rejection of free will
Libertarianism- idea that some human actions or choices are not causally determined
Compatiblism- rejects the argument that free will and causal determinism are incompatible
Insist that a variety of options need not be metaphysically open to us in order for our will to be
free; for actions to be free they must express or give voice to our desires and values- even if
those values are determined by outside sources
Incompatiblism- if determinism is true thievery man action is necessitated by prior events and if
thats true then no one can choose or act otherwise
What is the theory of personal identity a theory of?
it is a theory that tries to answer the question of what is it that makes someone the same person
tomorrow as they are now
Materialist- we are physical objects, our identity is associated with our physical body
Problem: idea of body swapping and still being ourselves
Dualist- we are immaterial souls with continued existence
Brain bisection- paradoxical because there would be two streams of consciousness in one body
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Document Summary

Free will- the idea that agents sometimes act and choose freely. If subject s has the option of choosing something other than a then subject s has free will. Causal determinism- every event is causally determined to occur by some other events. Every event that occurs is the result of earlier causes and natural laws. Fatalism- present and future are fixed; whatever happens now or in the future happens necessarily; both causal determinism and fatalism undermine the existence of free will. Libertarianism- idea that some human actions or choices are not causally determined. Compatiblism- rejects the argument that free will and causal determinism are incompatible. Incompatiblism- if determinism is true thievery man action is necessitated by prior events and if thats true then no one can choose or act otherwise.