[POL SCI 141B] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (12 pages long!)

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UC-Irvine
POL SCI 141B
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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1/10/16
In US, presidential power is important
-Is the US going to remain involved in East Asia?
-US presidents have recognized the importance of EA and have tried to remain involved.
-The question is, is the US going to be pulling back and not honoring its commitments?
-That leads to a vacuum in EA
-Theme: uncertainty
-The Industrial Revolution led to a dramatic shift of economic power from Asia to Europe
and the US.
Percentage Share of World GDP (1000-1998): Asia has declined, whereas Europe and N.AM
has inclined
-Asian decline sharp in 1820, period of colonization
-Every single Asian country colonized except Japan
-Since 1950s, the Asian economies have grown rapidly, first Japan then the NICs.
-World GDP does not correlate to world population
-Other than Canada and Mexico, EA is the US’s biggest trading partners.
Themes and Objectives
-Gain an understanding of the impact of history (esp. historical animosities) on current
relations
-Become familiar with competing views of NE Asian actors (China, Taiwan, Koreas, Japan),
understand current security and economic relations
-Assess future trends and directions in the region, US role
Historical Legacies
-Asia was not a blank slate before WWII and US involvement
-It had advanced civilizations
-Imperialism
-Cold War in EA
Political and security Relations in NE Asia
-China: Strategic competitor or partner? After China shifted to more of a capitalist model,
the US-China relationship has become more cordial.
-Japan: Competing Strategic Futures (will cover after midterm)
-Ever since the end of WWII, US and JP have had a strong relationship
-Japanese anti-militarism until the last 10-15 years
-But today, Japan is debating whether to get rid of the old FP and become militarily strong
-Relations on the Korean Peninsula (divisions, NK effort to obtain nuclear weapons)
-All efforts to stop NK has failed
Regional Issues
-Regional organization
-US in EA
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1/17/17
What we should be concerned with is the stability in EA during the time before
colonialism.
After the Ming Dynasty, the Qings took over.
-Number of disasters towards the end of the Ming dynasty, Manchus take power
-Lasted about 200 years
-Era during which China was swallowed up by outside powers
Tokugawa Japan (1600-1868)
-Japan had invaded Korea in 1591
-Very shortly after that, the Tokugawa family takes over Japan, long reign
begins
-Japan decided to shut itself off from the rest of the world
-Tokugawa worried about outside influence, Christian influence
-Believed that Japan would be stronger if it shut its borders
-Important: Japan decided to seclude itself during the age of
industrialization…negative consequences
-Trade did take place between Japan and the Dutch in Nagasaki, but the
Japanese regulated heavily
The Early European Presence in Asia
-Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, British, and Danish all active
-Built ports. But at the time, they were not trying to control EA
-EA: no property rights, no development of the capitalist system, no Industrial
Rev
The Changing International Context
The First Opium War (1840)
-BR was buying huge amounts of product from China, but was unable to
sell…trade imbalance
-Led to economic inflation and instability in BR
-Demand for Chinese goods (tea, porcelain, silk) very high
-BR developing new technology (steam engines, railroads)…changed military
balance
-One product BR could sell to China was opium huge problem for China
-Chinese attacked BR ships, but no match
-Opium sales in China rose steadily from the 1800s, spiked in 1858
-Treaty of Nanjing (1842): The Unequal Treaties, perhaps the beginning of the
age of humiliation
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