●People try to argue by showing that the fundamental
differences between groups are to blame: Women bear
children, are more likely to take leave etc… yet should we
really pay them less because of this?
■We are the 99% (photo from the slide)
●People’s justifications come from their opinions on the
certain groups, how are you characterizing other groups and
how are you characterizing yourself?
●Grouping others helps us approximate higher order thinking
○Scholars of public opinion and political science have been dismayed on
how knowledge voters are!
■Group Cue: Based off how one group is siding, you make your
decision off of that…
●Ex: If the insurance company is for a law, then most people
will be against it because they don’t trust insurance
■Group cues help us make the decisions that we would normally
make if we had all the information
■Yet it is dangerous if we don’t have all of the information on a group
Early milestone of cognitive development: perception of self as subject and object
○As a baby, you think you are the only person in the world, yet you soon
realize that people see you differently than you see yourself.
○Once you realize this, you start caring about other people’s perceptions of
●Strong tendency to conform to the norms of social in-groups
○On the first day, Dr. Phoenix is dressing in a suit to establish himself as the
○Humans are constantly redefining ourselves to match other people’s
○Ex: Asch Conformity Experiment: it proves that we have a tendency to
conform because we don’t want the feeling of isolation and don’t want to
be an outlier
●Think about these ideas as we discuss race and ethnicity in the course!!!
Racial Schemas: When you don’t have all of the information of an item, yet try to paint a
full picture. Used to personify groups of people where you don’t have much interaction
with. We take a piece of the puzzle to make it the whole puzzle
●Asian-Americans as the “Model Minority,” yet has consequences
○It washes over those who haven’t reached economic success. Their poverty
rates are consistent with the national average.