POL SCI 6C Midterm: Poly Sci 6C Midterm Study Guide

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University of California - Irvine
Political Science
William Schonfeld

Poly Sci 6C Midterm Study Guide I. Locke – Second Treatise of Government a. State of Nature i. People are free to life from outside rule ii. Natural law of morality governs behavior; each person can punish the person that infringes on their rights iii. People take what they need, and take just enough of what they need. If they put in effort to get something, it becomes their property as long as it doesn’t infringe on anyone else’s rights iv. People exchange some of their rights to enter into a society with other people in which they are protected by common laws. An executive power enforces the law v. The state has a judicial, legislative, and executive branch. The legislative branch is the most important because it determines the laws of the civil society vi. The people of the state have the right to dissolve the government if it stops working solely in the peoples’ best interest. The government exists only to serve the best interest of the people. vii. The state of nature is a state of equality in which no one has power over another. This liberty to do whatever one wants does not mean that one can abuse another. Natural law exists even in the state of nature Each individual in the state of nature can execute the universal natural laws viii. All people are in a state of nature until a special agreement makes them members of political society b. Of State of War i. Law of self preservation says any person can kill another in self-defense, because aggression on another person means they are challenging another’s freedom ii. State of nature and state of war are incredibly different. State of nature means everyone living as equals, state of war means people are trying to force something on other people. iii. Lack of common judge or authority = state of nature iv. Force without right = state of war c. Of Slavery i. Natural liberty = person’s right to be ruled solely by the laws of nature ii. Social liberty = right to be under no legislative power other than that founded by the consent of the commonwealth iii. State of slavery is an extension of state of war d. Of Property i. When an individual adds their own labor to a foreign object or good, that object becomes their own because they have added their labor. ii. A person can only take as much as he or she genuinely needs and can use to his or her advantage e. Of Paternal Power i. All people are born with an equal right to freedom, but they are born without reason, which is the tool that people use to survive in the state of nature and society. ii. Parental power extends until child is grown old enough to function in society independently. iii. Reason leads to personal freedom iv. Political power and paternal power are completely different. Parental power ends when a child is old enough (21), political power is built on different foundations f. Of Political or Civil Society i. Conjugal society – first society between man and woman. This is separate from political society, and the master and mistress have power over everyone in the household. Power is not absolute, because they lack the power of life and death, or political. ii. Civil society – united body of individuals under the power of an executive that protects their property and well-being, and designs legislation to govern their behavior iii. Absolute monarchy places no common authority over all g. Beginning of Political Societies i. In civil society, the governing factor must be the majority, and by entering this society, one enters themselves into the majority. h. Ends of Political Society and Government i. State of nature lacks three things – law, judge, and executive office. To enter into a political society and gain these three things, one must give up natural rights i. Forms of a Commonwealth i. Upon entering a commonwealth, one must choose their form of government. They can choose democracy, oligarchy, monarchy, hereditary j. The extent of the legislative power i. Most important part of the government ii. The first rule of the legislative power is the preservation of society. No one can challenge the power of the legislature or pass laws of their own. Such power is invested in this body by the majority. iii. The legislation must govern by fixed laws that apply equally to everyone. The government must work solely for the good of the people k. Legislative, Executive, and Federative Power of the Commonwealth i. Legislature only needs to be active and “in session” at certain times and not perpetual, as this can lead to an abuse of power ii. Executive must always be active because the laws that the legislature passes must always be enforced. iii. A state is in a state of nature with respect to other states – international relations are governed by natural law iv. The federative power is the natural power in charge of the state’s international relations. It is often joined with the executive power, which manages the society within l. The subordination of the powers of the commonwealth i. The people are still supreme over all and have the power to remove or alter the legislation. The community and the majority are the true supreme power ii. Within the government, the legislature is supreme. Even in a monarchy, the person only has supreme execution, not supreme control of the government m. Prerogative i. The executive may exercise prerogative (god judgment) in instances in which situations have to be dealt with before the legislative can be assembled to provide laws. ii. The executive can take actions that are outside the framework of the laws if they work in society’s best interest iii. Prerogative – nothing but the power of doing good without rule iv. Prerogative is a trust placed by the people in the executive, which the executive can use as long as it is used fairly. n. Paternal, Political, and Despotical Power i. Paternal – power that parents have over children until they reach the age of reason ii. Political – power that each individual in society consents to submit to
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