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PSY BEH 104S Study Guide - Winter 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Fundamental Attribution Error, Tobacco Smoking, Social Psychology


Department
Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
PSY BEH 104S
Professor
Paul Piff
Study Guide
Midterm

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PSY BEH 104S

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We are Social Animals
- Humans evolved in groups
- Living in large social groups likely contributed to our biggest evolutionary advantage
- Our brains
- They are so big that 9 months isn’t really long enough to develop in the womb,
but we couldn’t really get out if we waited any longer
- Head takes up much of the weight of babies
- Social Processes are always at work
- In ways you are aware of - and many you are not aware of
- Wellesley effect
- Social Processes
- Situations create pressure…
- When you put someone in a situation where there is a lot of social pressure
around them, one can be made to make certain decisions
- Social Psychology
- Attempt to understand and explain how thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
of individuals are influenced by actual, imagined or implied presence of
others.
- Gordon Allport (1954)
- Psychology in everyday situations
- Writing Assignment:
- Summary
- Articles posted in the Article folder on EEE
- Chooses one article to summarize
- Address all questions in the syllabus
- DUE Thursday, February 21st
- Portfolio
- Four short assignments
- Description can be found on EEE
- Must do 4 DIFFERENT assignments
- Allows you to consider material from different perspectives
- DUE Tuesday, March 5th in HARD COPY
- Learning is an end in itself…
- You can do better in life if you look at things as an end in themselves
- Abraham Maslow
- EX: basketball; each game is an “end” because they only think about crushing the
other team in the immediate moment, not about the next game or the next one…
- Approach the game you are immediately in as all that matters
- This way you will enjoy things more, do better at things
- Self-Theories
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- Incremental theory of self
- If I work at this I will get better even if I suck at it right now.
- Process Thinking
- Incremental improvements
- Encourages trying new methods
- Cultivates mastery of material
- Learning from failure
- Thomas Edison
- Failed 1000’s of times
- Invented the light bulb
- Changed the world
- Social vs. Personality Psychology
- Personality is focused on the individual. Interested in the individual person. How
people respond differently than others, but consistently across situations
- Social focused on the individual in the context of a social situation. Certain
situations elicit similar things even if personality is different. Sitting in a class,
people won’t usually stand up and dance around. Introverted people act
differently at a party than in class.
- Social Psychology
- At the heart is social influence
- Social Influence on Behavior
- In picture with many people wearing blue shirts and one wearing yellow.
Personality will study qualities of the individual that may make a person shy,
rebellious, etc. Social would think about why everyone would wear the same kind
of shirt at a place like a game.
- The Power of Social Situations
-
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Lecture 2
Social Psychology
- Psychology of many types of “normal” experiences
- Is about social influence
- Operates consciously, but can also operate outside of our conscious awareness
- Social Psychology, Philosophy, Science, and Common Sense
- Social psychology versus philosophy
- Address many of the same questions - but social psychology explores
them scientifically
- Philosophers don’t need to test things, they just explain them, usually very
detailed, why they believe in these things.
- Social Psychology versus common sense
- Common sense = folk wisdom
- Ideas that people have about the way the world works give psychologists
ideas of what to test and see if they are true.
- Social psychologists predict behavior by forming hypotheses and testing
- Social Psychology and Lay Theories
- Lay theories are givens, beliefs that often go unchallenged
- Example:
- Attractive people are kind and generous
- You cannot teach an old dog new tricks
- Birds of a feather, flock together
- These are all empirical questions
- Social Psychology Findings
- Choice Blindness
- Some studies can seem very predictable, but in the face study where they
had to choose the most attractive face and were handed the wrong card,
most people could not detect that they were given the wrong card.
- Often people believe they could have predicted the outcome of a study
- After they already learn the outcome
- Hindsight bias
- Know the outcome and think of all the reasons why
- Social Psych versus Other Social Sciences
- Difference in analysis level
- Sociology
- Level of analysis focus on society at large
- Social psychology
- Focus on the individual in the context of a social situation
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