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PSY BEH 118D Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Masters And Johnson, Bronisław Malinowski, Kinsey Reports

Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
Joanne Zinger
Study Guide

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P118D Human Sexuality
I. Sex and gender
II. Understanding the impact of religion and science on sexuality
A. The dominant religion of the society affects the sexual norms of the prevailing culture.
B. The scientific study of sex began, during the rather repressive Victorian Era: Freud, Ellis, von Krafft-Ebbing, Hirschfeld
C. Twentieth-century U.S. researchers include Alfred Kinsey and Masters & Johnson.
D. Twentieth-century anthropologists Margaret Mead and Bronislaw Malinowski
E. The result: the study of sexuality is interdisciplinary
III. Influence of the media: Cultivation, agenda-setting, and social learning; impact of the Internet
IV. Cross-cultural perspectives on sexuality
A. Culture: Ideas and values that are transmitted across generations and form basis for expected behaviors.
B. Variations in sexual techniques
C. Masturbation
D. Premarital and extramarital sex
E. Same-gender partners: Attitudes vary widely by culture. Three observations noted:
1. Some degree of this behavior in all societies
2. More common among males
3. Never represents the prevailing norm of sexual interaction
F. Standards of attractiveness
G. Variation in United States by social class and ethnicity: African-American, Latino, Asian-American, American-Indians
V. Cross-species perspectives on sexuality
A. Masturbation, same-gender sexual contact, and sexual signaling are common among other species, particularly primates.
B. Humans are unique from other species
C. Research indicates that, like humans, some animals are capable of using sexual behavior for nonsexual purposes
IX. The sexual health perspective
A. Sexual health is an all-encompassing term
B. A new focus on positive sexual health has emerged.
C. Basic human sexual rights have taken a new focus in discussions around the world.
D. Ideas presented on sexual health and sexual rights offer another area of exploration of sexuality.
I. Measuring Sex
A. Issues regarding the process of measuring sexuality must be addressed at the start of any research endeavor.
B. Self-reports, behavioral measures, implicit measures, and biological measures such as eye-tracking and genital arousal.
II. Issues in sex research: Sampling, accuracy of self-reports; test-retest reliability; interviews vs. questionnaires; ethical issues
III. The major sex surveys: Kinsey report, NHSLS, NATSAL, Ford & Norris (1997), magazine surveys
IV. Studies of special populations: Project SIGMA, web-based surveys
V. Media content analysis
VI. Laboratory studies using direct observation: Masters & Johnson
A. Respondents were solicited by word of mouth
B. Respondents were given a practice session before intercourse, masturbation, and artificial coition were recorded.
C. Masters and Johnson attempted to adhere to ethical principles in conducting this research
D. An alternative to quantitative methods, qualitative research uses results that are conveyed in words rather than numbers.
VII. Participant-observer studies involve those in which the researcher observes within the population studied
VIII. Experiments: Correlational study, experiment, experimental design
IX. Statistical concepts: Mean, variability, average vs. normal, incidence, frequency, correlation
I. Sex hormones : Hormones are chemical substances manufactured by the endocrine glands.
A. Sex hormone systems in males operate in a feedback loop referred to as the HPG (hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad) axis.
1. The pituitary produces FSH and LH
2. The hypothalamus secretes GnRH to regulate FSH and LH levels.
B. In the sex hormone system of females, the ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone in a negative feedback loop
1. Estrogen and progesterone levels fluctuate across the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy and menopause.
2. Other hormones produced by the pituitary include prolactin, oxytocin, and inhibin
II. Prenatal sexual differentiation
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