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PSY BEH 11A Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Thalamus, Psychophysics, Perseveration


Department
Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
PSY BEH 11A
Professor
Bruce Berg
Study Guide
Final

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UC-Irvine
PSY BEH 11A
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Psychology!(8th!Edition)!by!Gleitman,!Gross,!and!Reisberg!
Making'Observations'
!
Defining'the'Question'
!It’s!important!to!pinpoint!what!you!want!to!observe!
!separate!which!factors!you!care!about!&!which!ones!to!ignore!
!Your!question!should!be!concrete/welldefined!
!must!have!a!testable!hypothesis!–!specific,!can!be!tested!w/out!ambiguity!
!should!be!able!to!be!linked!back!to!the!question!
!should!be!falsifiable”!
!You!also!need!an!operational!method!–!the!procedure!
!must!have!construct!validity!or!reflect!the!variable!accurately!
!EX:!you!would!base!aggression!off!of!a!punch!rather!than!a!frown!
!should!define!the!independent!&!dependent!variables!
!When!assessing!a!subjective!variable,!its!best!to!use!a!panel!of!judges!(think!the!
Olympics?)!
!
Systematically'Collecting'Data'
!Informal!data!collection!(such!as!from!memory)!isn’t!helpful!in!science!because…!
!memory!is!selective”!
!EX:!confirmation!bias!
!anecdotal!evidence!form!conclusions!that!mainly!come!from!a!person’s!
thoughts,!not!the!actual!evidence!
!can!be!misleading!&!only!point!to!exceptions!
!The!process!to!collect!data…!
!record!it!in!a!neutral!setting!
!have!a!systematic!way!to!record!the!data!
!must!be!firsthand!observations!
!
Defining'the'Sample'
!Often!times,!conclusions!will!somehow!apply!to!a!certain!population!
!you!will!never!be!able!to!study!a!whole!population!(kind!of!obvious),!only!a!
sample!of!it!
!the!sample!chosen!will!depend!on!the!research!question!
!To!avoid!excluding!or!favoring!a!certain!type!of!person,!you!must!use!random!
sampling!
!assures!everyone!&!anyone!has!an!equal!chance!of!being!chosen!
!makes!it!more!likely!that!the!sample!reflects!the!population!
!researchers!can!even!use!max.!variation!sampling!to!seek!out!the!unusual!
cases!
!Sometimes!it’s!also!useful!to!study!individuals!–!case!studies!
!provides!more!detail,!but!requires!more!time!
!both!Freud!&!Piaget!used!this!method!to!study!their!claims!
!have!been!important!in!studies!of!the!brain!
!
! !
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Psychology!(8th!Edition)!by!Gleitman,!Gross,!and!Reisberg!
Assessing'External'Validity'
!The!situations!that!are!examined!can!be!just!as!diverse!as!the!samples!
!If!you!want!your!sample!to!be!a!broad!representation,!you!need!to!check!the!
external!validity!
!sample!must!be!representative!
!circumstances!should!reflect!the!broader!world!
!also!depends!on!whats!being!investigated!
!
Monitoring'Demand'Characteristics'
!A!study!should!not!affect!the!behaviors!being!examined!
!Demand!characteristics!–!can!make!someone!think!one!response!is!better!than!the!
other!
!can!be!through!a!question!or!subtle!action!
!to!avoid!this,!statements/questions!are!phrased!in!a!neutral!way!&!
participants!are!treated!equally!
!a!double‑blind!design!can!also!be!implemented!
!
Working'with'Data'
!
The!next!step!after!conducting!a!study!is!analyzing!the!data.!
!First!step:!descriptive!statistics!(summarize)!
!Second!step:!inferential!statistics!(how!much!confidence!you!have!in!your!
conclusion)!
!
Descriptive'Statistics'
!A!bell!shape!is!the!most!common!when!graphing!distributions!
!2!ways!to!measure!the!central!tendency:!mean!&!median!
!Variability!is!a!measure!of!how!much!the!data!differ!from!each!other!
!one!way!to!measure!this!is!standard!deviation!
!Correlations!happen!when!2!variables!tend!to!change!together!
!we!can!find!the!value!of!the!correlation!coefficient!(r),!which!indicates!the!
strength/direction!
!sign!is!independent!from!strength!
!In!psychology,!things!aren’t!easily!quantifiable,!so!to!make!sure!the!results!are!
trustworthy!you!have!to!check!the!reliability!–!how!consistent!measurements!are!
!Validity!is!equally!important!–!you!have!to!make!sure!that!you’re!measuring!what!
you!want!to!measure!
!
Inferential'Statistics'
!You!can!answer!broader!questions!with!inferential!statistics!
!Effect!size!–!the!difference!between!2!groups!(typically!the!means)!
!Variability!relationships!
!if!it’s!low,!youre!good!
!if!it’s!high,!you!need!to!work!on!it!more!
!The!more!observations!=!The!more!trust!you!can!put!
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