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PSY BEH 11A- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 54 pages long!)


Department
Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
PSY BEH 11A
Professor
Donald Hoffman
Study Guide
Final

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UC-Irvine
PSY BEH 11A
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODS
2.1 HOW IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD USED IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH?
- Data: measurable outcomes of research studies
SCIENCE HAS 4 PRIMARY GOALS
- 4 goals
- 1. Description
- 2. Prediction
- 3. Control
- 4. Explanation
- Describe what phenomenon is, predict when it will occur, control what
causes it to occur, explain why it occurs
CRITICAL THINKING MEANS QUESTIONING AND EVALUATING INFORMATION
- Critical thinking: ability: skill
- First step: question info
- Ask for definition of each part of the claim
- 2nd step: evaluation of information
- To answer questions, need to go to source of claim
- Think where claim come from. Thin about evidence offered by source to
support claim
- Well-supported evidence: research reports based on empirical data published in
peer-reviewed journals
- “Peer review”: process by which other scientists with similar expertise
evaluate & critique research reports before publication`
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AIDS CRITICAL THINKING
- Determining whether claim is supported by evidence
- Research: careful collection of data
- Follows scientific method: procedure begins with observation of a
phenomenon & and question of why that phenomenon occurred
- Interaction among research, theories, hypotheses
- Theory: explanation/ model of how phenomenon works
- Used to explain prior observations & make
predictions about future events
- Hypothesis: specific, testable prediction, narrower than
theory it is based on
- Features of good theories
- Should be falsifiable
- Can test hypotheses generated by theory to prove it’s incorrect
- Testable hypotheses
- Tend toward simplicity
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- Occam’s Razor (law of parsimony): when 2 competing
theories exist to explain same phenomenon, simpler of 2
theories is generally preferred
- Piaget: infant & child development. Cognitive development in stages
- Freud: dreams represent fulfillment of unconscious wish
- Theory not good bc generated few testable hypotheses regarding actual
function of dreams
- Test hypotheses: scientific method. 6 steps series
- 1. Form a hypothesis
- Testable research predictions → hypotheses
- 2. Conduct a literature review
- Review of scientific literature related to theory
- Can guide direction of research
- 3. Design a study
- Deciding which research method want to be used to test hypothesis
- 4. Conduct the study
- Recruit participants & measure their responses ← collecting/
gathering data
- 5. Analyze the data
- Two main ways
- 1. Describe the data
- 2. Want to know what conclusions you can draw from your
data. Results are meaningful or they happened by chance
- 6. Report results
- Findings to public to benefit society, support scientific culture,
permit other scientists to build on their work
- Brief reports: talks and poster sessions
- Should be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal
- Replication: repeating study & getting the same (similar) results
- When results from 2< studies are same, confidence increases findings
- Researchers not affiliated: replicate → powerful support bc rule out
possibility that some feature of original setting may have
contributed to findings
- Cyclical process
- To understand which theory is best, design critical studies: directly contrast
theories to see which theory better explains data
UNEXPECTED FINDINGS CAN BE VALUABLE
- Many findings are results of serendipity: unexpectedly finding things that are
valuable/ agreeable
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