Psy Beh 121 - Review Sheet for Midterm 1.doc

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University of California - Irvine
Psychology and Social Behavior
Joanne Zinger

REVIEW SHEET FOR MIDTERM #1 Human Sexuality (P118D) – Summer 2012 CHAPTER 1: SEXUALITY IN PERSPECTIVE I. Independent Reading A. Sex and Gender (pages 2-3): 1. The text authors employ the term sex to refer to “sexual anatomy and behavior” and the term gender to refer to “the state of being male or female.” 2. Sexual behavior will be defined as behavior that produces arousal and increases the chance of orgasm. B. The Media (pages 6-7) 1. Text authors review the impact of media on sexuality.  The mass media carry extensive portrayals of sexuality and are a powerful influence on most people’s understanding of sexuality 2. Three types of media influence:  Cultivation: the notion that people begin to think that what they see on TV and in other media really represents the mainstream of what happens in their culture  Agenda-setting: news reports select what to report/ emphasize and what to ignore  Social learning: characters in movies/ novels may serve as models whom we imitate, possibly without even realizing it 3. Impact of the Internet  The newest, and possibly the most powerful mass media influence  Has the potential for both positive (websites that provide information about sexuality/ promote sexual health) and negative (sexual solicitation) effects on sexual health C. The Sexual Health Perspective (page 20) 1. Sexual health refers to STIs as well as social and political issues related to sexual health across countries. 2. A new focus on positive sexual health has emerged. 3. Ideas presented on sexual health and sexual rights offer another area of exploration of sexuality. II. Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality A. Sex as Taboo o Major generalization from cross-cultural studies: no society has seen fit to leave sexuality totally unregulated, perhaps fearful that social disruption would result o Incest taboos are nearly universal o Most societies also condemn forced sexual relations such as rape B. Variations in Sexual Techniques o Kissing: sucking the lips and tongue of the partner, permitting saliva to flow from one mouth to the other o Inflicting pain: Women biting off bits of their partner’s eyebrows, noisily spitting them aside; people of various societies bite their partners to the point of drawing blood and leaving scars o Frequency of intercourse: Irish natives of Inis Beag - once or twice a month; Mangaians - several times a night, at least among the young; Santals - as often as five times per day, every day, early in marriage; U.S. is in the middle compared with other societies C. Masturbation: Attitudes toward masturbation, or sexual self-stimulation of the genitals, vary widely across cultures o Some societies tolerate/ encourage it during childhood and adolescence, while other societies condemn it at any age o Almost all societies express some disapproval of adult masturbation; can range from mild ridicule to severe punishment o At least some adults in all societies appear to practice it D. Premarital and Extramarital Sex 1. Societies differ considerably in their rules regarding premarital sex 2. Extramarital sex ranks second only to incest as the most strictly prohibited types of sexual contact E. Sex with Same-Gender Partners 1. No matter how a particular society treats homosexuality, the behavior always occurs in at least some individuals 2. Men are more likely to engage in same-gender sexual behavior than women 3. Same-gender sexual behavior is never the predominate form of sexual behavior for adults in any societies F. Standards of Attractiveness 1. The region of the body that is judged for attractiveness varies from one culture to the next 2. A poor complexion is considered unattractive in the majority of human societies G. Social Class and Ethnic Group Variations in the U.S. o Those who have advanced degrees are approx. twice as likely to have masturbated (in the last year) as those who did not finish high school o Abortions rates rise from 5% for those who did not complete high school to 14% for those who hold advanced degrees  Possible that one’s sexuality influences one’s social class; getting an abortion may allow women to continue their education o African Americans: Less masturbation (men), less oral sex performed (women) o Latinos: Latina women less likely to masturbate o Asian Americans: Fewer partners, fewer same-sex CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUALITY I. Independent Readings A. Learning Theory and Sexual Orientation in a Non-Western Society (page 31) 1. In Sambia, men are expected to be in homosexual relationships for 10 years and then marry women 2. Social learning theory may be able to explain this pattern of behavior 3. Positive conditioning in the direction of heterosexuality occurs early in life 4. Observational learning occurs (heterosexual relationship between mom and dad during early years) 5. The boy is provided with much cognitive structuring, a notion present in social learning theory & cognitive psych 6. Social learning theory provides a sensible explanation of the seemingly puzzling shift that Sambia males make B. Sociological Perspectives (pages 34 – 38) 1. Influence of society is discussed in this text from the macro level of analysis, focusing on social institutions.  Religion: abstinence; procreational ideology  Economy: industrial revolution = less sexual surveillance from family (affairs and same-gender sex); unemployment = reluctance to marry, sex outside of marriage; buying sex  Family: increased emphasis on quality of interpersonal relationships in the family; love linked with sex; relational ideology; socialization of children  Medicine: physicians dictate what is healthy and unhealthy (ex: masturbation then and now); childbirth; therapeutic ideology • Medicalization of sexuality: certain or conditions are defined in terms of health and illness, and problematic experiences or practices are given medical treatment (E.D., female orgasmic dysfunction, etc.)  Law: laws determine norms; laws are the basis for the mechanisms of social control; the law reflects the interests of the powerful, dominant groups (ex: Mormon v. Judeo-Christian) 2. Symbolic interaction theories  Human nature and the social order are products of symbolic communication among people  People can communicate successfully only to the extent that they ascribe similar meanings to objects and people  Woman inviting a date to her apartment: mutual effort required to develop a definition of the situation  Role taking: an individual imagines how they look from the other person’s viewpoint  Criticisms: emphasis on rational/ conscious thought, when emotions may be very important; portrays humans as other-directed individuals concerned with meeting others’ standards; we don’t always consciously role take and communicate in an effort to achieve agreement, sometimes we rely on past experiences/ habit. 3. Sexual scripts  Sexual behavior is the result of elaborate prior learning that teaches us an etiquette of sexual behavior  Guidelines for behavior, but individual variations within the guidelines  Scripts guide actions and tell us the meaning we should attach to a particular event (implied sexual activity on TV/ movies) 4. Ira Reiss points out that sexuality is universally important because it’s associated w/ great physical pleasure and self-disclosure  Sexuality linked to social structure in three areas: the kinship system (sexual jealousy), the power structure (males typically control female sexuality), the ideology of the society (define normal v. abnormal sexual practices) II. Psychological Theories A. Psychoanalytic theory o Libido: Sex drive, one of the two major forces motivating human behavior o Erogenous zones: The libido being focused in various regions of the body. Sensitive to stimulation; touching it in certain ways produces pleasurable feelings. In each stage of development, a different erogenous zone is the focus B. Learning Theory o Classical conditioning of sexual arousal (ex: specific cologne paired with sexual activity) o Operant conditioning:  Sexual intercourse repeatedly associated with punishment (pain due to vaginal infection), reduces the behavior  Consequences (reinforcement and punishment) are most effective in shaping behavior when they occur immediately after the behavior • Immediate reward (pleasure) of unprotected sex maintains the behavior • Punishment (pain of gonorrhea) doesn’t occur until days later and is ineffective in eliminating the behavior CHAPTER 3 – SEX RESEARCH I. Independent Reading A. Issues in Sex Research (Pages 41-46) o Sampling  If the sample is a reasonably large random sample or representative sample of the population in question, then results obtained from it can safely be generalized to the population that was originally identified  Probability sampling: each member of the population has a known probability of being included in the sample • If the sample consists only of adolescents with certain characteristics (parents let them participate in sex research), the results obtained from it may not be true of all adolescents  Sampling typical proceeds in three phases: the population is identified, a method for obtaining a sample is adopted, and the people in the sample are contacted and asked to participate  Problem of refusal or nonresponse (makes it difficult to study a random sample)  Outcomes may contain volunteer bias (bias that arises when people refuse to participate; those who volunteered for the survey may in some ways differ from those who refused to participate)  Convenience sample: chosen in a haphazard manner relative to the population of interest; not a random or probability sample o Self-reports  Purposeful distortion: purposefully giving false information in a survey (exaggerate or minimize)  It may be difficult for respondents to accurately recall sexual behaviors from years prior  In some surveys people are asked to give estimates of things they probably can’t estimate very accurately o Test-retest reliability: a method for testing whether self-reports are reliable or accurate  Participants are asked a series of questions and then asked the same set of questions after a period of time has passed  The correlation between answers at the two times measures the reliability of responses o Interviews  Can be done face-to-face or on the phone  Interviewer can establish rapport and try to convince the respondent of the research’s worth and the necessity for honesty  Interviewer can also vary the sequence of questions depending on the responses  Interviews can be administered to people who can’t read or write o Questionnaires  Respondents may be more honest because they feel more anonymous  Computer-assisted self-interview method (CASI): offers the privacy of the written questionnaire while accommodating poor readers • Computer can be programmed to follow varying sequences of questions depending on respondents’ answers, just as a human interviewer does o Ethics  Informed consent: participants have a right to be told, before they participate, what the purpose of the research is and what they will be asked to do  Protection from harm: investigators should minimize the amount of physical/ psychological stress to people in their research  Justice principle: the risks of participating in research and the benefits of the results should be distributed fairly across groups in society  Cost-benefit approach: an approach to analyzing the ethics of a research study, based on weighing the costs of the research (time, stress, etc.) against the benefits (gaining knowledge about human sexuality) B. Studies of Special Populations (Page 52) o Project SIGMA: study of gay men in the AIDS era  Defined the population as men who have sex with men  Divided the population conceptually into two groups: those who were “out” and could be contacted easily; and those who were hidden and not easily accessible • Recruited respondents from the first group, then used them to nominate persons in the second category • Asked persons in the second category to nominate others in their category (snowball sampling)  Daily diary method of self-report: participants were provided with a diary to record each sexual session • Overcomes problems with relying on memory o Web-based surveys  Can recruit much larger samples than traditional interviews or questionnaires  Can potentially produce broader samples than traditional survey methods  Have particular advantages for studying special populations defined by their sexual behavior, particularly if it’s taboo (ex: closeted gays)  Have the ability to eliminate extraneous influences on responding (ex: gender/ ethnicity of the interviewer)  There is some bias, as not everyone has internet access  Researcher lacks control of the environment in which the respondent completed the survey  Individuals might respond multiple times or try sabotage/ skew the results  Overall, web-based surveys offer substantial advantages over traditional survey methods C. Media Content Analysis (Page 53-54) 1. Complex method in which the researcher codes the content of references to a topic found in a particular medium 2. Measures of intercoder reliability can be used to assess the interference of researcher bias D. Laboratory Studies Using Direct Observations (Pages 54-56) 1. Masters and Johnson employed direct observation of sexual behavior 2. Respondents were solicited by word of mouth 3. Respondents were given a practice session to alleviate discomfort before their responses during intercourse, masturbation, and artificial coition were recorded. 4. Masters and Johnson attempted to adhere to ethical principles in conducting this research 5. Qualitative research uses results that are conveyed in words rather than numbers. E. Experiments (Pages 57-58) 1. An experiment allows researchers to determine the causes of various aspects of behavior 2. A study investigated whether being interviewed face to face causes children to underreport their sexual experiences II. The Major Sex Surveys A. The Kinsey Report o The sample: 5300 men, 5940 women  Interviews conducted between 1938 and 1949  Collect sex histories from a wide variety of people  Not a representative sample of the U.S. o The interviews: “At what age did you begin…”  Assumed behaviors instead of asking for confirmation  He made sure responses were secure/anonymous o Controversy over accuracy  American Statistical Association appointed blue ribbon panel, made up of statistical experts • Agreed that interview techniques were excellent • Impossible to say how accurate the statistics were because the sample wasn’t representative  Interview techniques, probability sampling B. The National Health & Social Life Survey (NHSLS) 1. An up-to-date, large-scale, national survey of sexuality using probability sampling methods in 1994 2. The most controversial statistic in the study was the incidence of homosexuality III. Masters and Johnson - The Physiology of Sexual Response: A. Sampling 1. Participants from the general population were paid for their help in the laboratory 2. In all, 694 people participated in the study; men ranged from 21 to 89, women from 18 to 78 3. Participants were more educated than the general population and the sample was mostly White B. Data collection Techniques 1. First, they had a “practice session” 2. The physical responses were then recorded during sexual intercourse, masturbation, and artificial coition CHAPTER 6: CHILDBIRTH I. Independent Reading A. Pregnancy (pages 116-124) o First trimester: first 12 weeks  Early signs include amenorrhea, tenderness of breasts, nausea, fatigue, increased urination  Most common pregnancy tests detect hCG in urine or blood  Physical changes in first trimester due to increasing levels of estrogen and progesterone produced by the placenta  Depression and anxiety about miscarriage are not uncommon o Second trimester: weeks 13 to 26  Woman becomes aware of the fetus’ movements (quickening)  Rapidly expanding belly  Most physical symptoms of the first trimester disappear; discomforts are at a minimum  Physical problems include constipation, nosebleeds, and edema (water retention and swelling)  A period of relative calm and well-being; fear of miscarriage diminishes when the woman feels the fetus moving o Third trimester: weeks 27 to 38  Uterus is very large and hard  Fetus is becoming more and more active  Uterus puts pressure on the lungs and stomach, and the heart is being strained due to the increased blood volume  Uterus tightens occasionally in Braxton-Hicks contractions  Fetus turns and the head drops into the pelvis (engagement) o Father's experience  Couvade syndrome: some men experience pregnancy symptoms including indigestion, gastritis, nausea, change in appetite, and headaches • May be caused by hormonal changes in the male (higher levels of prolactin)  Couvade ritual: in some cultures, the husband retires to bed while his wife is in labor, and suffers all the pains of delivery  Men who showed higher levels of responsiveness had higher levels of prolactin prenatally/ lower levels of testosterone postnatally  Fathers who participate in baby preparation activities provide support to their partner and become more involved themselves B. Infertility (pages 136-138): o Female causes of infertility:  Most common: pelvic inflammatory disease caused by a STD  Problems with ovulation  Blockage of fallopian tubes  Cervical mucus that blocks the passage of sperm  Age, weight, poor nutrition, eating disorders, exposure to toxic chemicals, smoking, alcohol/ narcotic/ barbiturate use o Male infertility:  Most common : infections in the reproductive system caused by STDs  Low sperm count  Low motility of the sperm  Exposure to toxins, alcohol/ marijuana use, use of some prescription drugs, obesity, exposure to environmental estrogens, age o Treatments:  If infertility is due to ovulation failure, treatment may involve fertility drugs  If due to blocked fallopian tubes, microsurgery can sometimes be effective  If due to varicoceles in the testicles, it can usually be treated successfully by surgery  New reproductive technologies (in vitro fertilization) II. Problem Pregnancies A. Ectopic pregnancy (misplaced pregnancy) occurs when the fertilized egg implants somewhere other than the uterus 1. Most commonly ectopic pregnancies occur when the egg implants in the fallopian tube (tubal pregnancy) 2. Approximately 2% of all pregnancies are ectopic B. Pseudocyesis (False Pregnancy) 1. She may stop menstruating and may have morning sickness; her abdomen may bulge 2. The condition may persist for several months before it goes away C. Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension 1. Pregnancy induced hypertension includes three increasingly serious conditions 2. It is hypothesized that the fetus releases a protein that increases the mothers blood pressure 3. Preeclampsia is more likely to occur in women who have not completed a pregnancy before, teenagers, Latina and Black women, and overweight women 4. Hypertension and preeclampsia can be managed well during their early stages D. Viral illness during pregnancy o Rubella (German measles):  If contracted in first month of pregnancy: 50% change of severe problems • Deaf, mentally deficiency, cataracts, congenital heart defects  Risk declines after first month  Can receive vaccination if not immune (must be done BEFORE pregnancy) o Herpes:  Herpes simplex: mild symptoms, usually cold sores or fever blisters  Genital herpes: direct contact with the sore • Baby could contract genital herpes during birth o Can be prevented by C-section • Women with genital herpes have a high risk of aborting spontaneously E. Birth Defects 1. A number of factors, such as substances taken during pregnancy and illness during pregnancy, may cause defects 2. Of all babies born in the U.S., 2 to 3% have a significant birth defect 3. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling are available to help to detect some birth defects F. Rh Incompatibility 1. The Rh factor is a substance in the blood; if it is present, the person is said to be Rh positive (Rh+) 2. Problem occurs when an Rh- woman is pregnant with an Rh+ fetus (can happen only if the father is Rh+) 3. If some Rh+ blood gets into Rh- blood, the Rh- blood forms antibodies 4. An injection of a substance called Rhogam prevents the woman's blood from producing antibodies G. Miscarriage, or spontaneous abortion, occurs when a pregnancy terminates through natural causes 1. It is estimated that at least 20% of all pregnancies end in miscarriage 2. Most miscarriages occur because the conceptus is defective H. Preterm Birth: When delivery occurs prior to 37 weeks gestation, it is consi
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