Personality Midterm Study Guide.docx

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University of California - Irvine
Psychology and Social Behavior
Salvatore R.Maddi

Personality Midterm Study Guide Conflict Model - Core Statement: Two incompatible or contradictory forces that need to be balanced (tragic theories) - Periphery o Ideal type: A compromise between the incompatible forces o Nonideal type: Favor one force at the expense of the other - Development o Ideal: Parent/child interactions emphasizing balance o Nonideal: Parent/child interactions that are too indulgent or punitive - Variants o Psychosocial Version: One force is in the individual, and the other is in society. Therefore, emphasis is on selfishness and the common good  Freud, Erikson o Intrapsychic Version: Both forces are in the individual. Therefore, the person is a house divided  Rank, Jung Sigmund Freud – Conflict, Psychosocial - Core Tendency: To maximize instinctual gratification while minimizing punishment and guilt o Reduce tension - Core Characteristics o ID: Life, sex, and death instincts  Instinctual/selfish part of you that is unconscious  Only part that is present at birth  Can only engage in primary process thought, meaning the ID does not interact with the outside world, attempts to satisfy instincts with images of desires  Pleasure principle (what is pleasurable is good)  Instincts = appetites • Source of all 3 instincts is biological functioning of cells • Life instincts o Source anabolism (part of metabolism for growth) o Food, water, air • Sexual instincts o Source-libido o Slower to mature/development is important for personality o Most likely source of conflict (esp in Freud’s time) • Death instincts o Not fully developed o Source catabolism  Wishes, attendant emotions, and metabolic substrata  Selfish and antisocial  Unmitigated expression brings punishment o SUPEREGO: Taboos and guilt  Internalized effects of punishment  Humans could not survive as a group if everyone was satisfying their instincts all the time  Socialization (mainly done by parents) teaches about right and wrong  These values are internalized (conscience)  Conflict is then between the selfish desires of the ID and the internalized values of the superego  You can’t always get what you want (will result in increased tension because you’ll be punished by others and feel guilt) o EGO: Two functions  Maximizing instinctual gratification through instrumental thought and action  Minimizing punishment and guilt through defenses and subsequent lack of awareness • Mediator between ID and Superego o Can’t fully express your instincts without being punished, but you can’t even be aware of all your instincts without feeling guilt o Triggered by anxiety (an alarm reaction) when instincts are strong enough o Allows for partial expression/partial satisfaction o No awareness of defenses • Cognitive recognition of a situation; use defenses to prevent awareness (self and others) • Partially conscious • Can interact with the world and has control over the body • Can satisfy ID instincts via secondary thought processes • Reality principle (what is real is good) - Development o PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES  Oral (mouth, taking and receiving): expression of sexual instinct in first year of life; derive pleasure or pain from your mouth • Optimism/pessimism, gullibility/suspiciousness, admiration/envy, cockiness/self-belittlement  Anal (anus, giving and withholding): expression of sexual instinct in second year of life; derive pleasure from giving or withholding • Toilet training • Stinginess/generosity, stubbornness/agreeableness, orderliness/messiness, punctual/tardy  Phallic (genitalia, sexualizing of experience): age 3-5, sexual instinct lodged in genitalia for the first time • Begin to want to have some kind of sexual experience with opposite sex parent • Oedipus complex • Over/underindulgence leads to castration anxiety • Stage when morality develops • Vanity/self hatred, blind courage/timidity, flirtatiousness/avoidance, chastity/promiscuity • Males- hyper masculine or effeminate, females- exaggerate femininity  Latency (no physical locus): age 6 – puberty; no physical development  Genital (combines all of the above): Carry out intercourse and other sexual experiences o FIXATION (does psychosocial development keep pace with biological maturation?)  Mental development stops at a certain level while biological development continues on o PARENT/CHILD RELATIONSHIP  The ideal balances indulgence and deprivation  Nonideal is either excessive indulgence or deprivation, leading to fixation  If parents punish/ indulge too much at the oral stage, you get stuck at that stage (fixated) even though your body continues through the rest of the stages - Peripheral Types and Characteristics o PREGENITAL (nonideal) TYPES  Oral (dependency traits: defenses of denial and projection/ introjection) • Vacillation between optimism and pessimism, gullibility and suspiciousness, admiration and hatred of others  Anal (control and aggression traits: reaction formation and intellectualization defenses) • Vacillating between stubbornness and acquiescence, stinginess and over- generosity, orderliness and messiness, punctuality and tardiness, precision and vagueness  Phallic (flirtatious traits: repressive defenses) • Vacillating between vanity and self-hatred, pride and humility, blind courage and timidity, chastity and promiscuity, stylishness and plainness, flirtatiousness and sexual avoidance o IDEAL TYPE: GENITAL (“to love and work”)  All traits shown in moderate degree  All defenses shown in moderate degree (sublimation) Eric Erikson – Conflict, Psychosocial (Ego Psychology) - Core Tendency: Similar to Freud, but some instincts not opposed to society - Core Characteristics: o ID: But more social than in Freud o EGO: Similar to Freud, but also “conflict free ego sphere”  Everyone has an inborn ego  Learning from your experience in the world  Use mental capabilities to reduce Id  Rational thought processes, accurate perceptual processes, muscular coordination o SUPEREGO: Similar to Freud - Development: Similar to Freud, but biological sexuality deemphasized in favor of psychosocial conflict between child and parents. 8 stages: o Trust v. distrust: first year of life  Issue is whether the child can feel dependent on/ comfortable with others  Nature of the parent-children interactions  If the parents are too punitive, the child will learn distrust  If there’s only moderate punishment (done in a loving way), the child will learn to trust o Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt: second year of life  Holding on or letting go  Similar to Freud’s anal stage  Issue is whether the child can feel independent of others  If the parents are supportive of independence, the child will learn autonomy  If the parents are punitive, the child will develop shame and doubt o Initiative v. Guilty Functioning: from 3 to 5  Similar to Freud’s phallic stage  Gaining attention of opposite sex parent  Issue is whether the child can feel competent and be active  If the child emerges from the previous stage autonomous, they will likely have initiative  If the parents are punitive, they will likely develop a sense of guilty functioning (I can’t do what my parents and society want of me) o Industry v. Inferiority: start of school  Issue is whether the child can feel satisfied in working hard  Reactions from teachers and classmates will affect whether they develop a sense of industry or inferiority o Identity v. Role Diffusion  Becoming an independent and effective adult, and the difficulties in doing so o Intimacy v. Isolation: young adulthood  Similar to Freud’s genital stage  Developing close and comprehensive relationships, and the difficulties in doing so o Generativity v. Stagnation: middle adulthood  Forgoing one’s own immediate concerns  Feel responsibility towards groups of people/ future generations  Taking on the role of the parent  Doing something they believe is good and worthwhile o Ego Integrity v. Despair: middle adulthood to old age  Decreasing important social and biological roles as old age approaches, and the difficulties accepting this  If successful at prior 7 stages, they can look back on their life and be proud of what they did  Feel that there’s meaning to their life  Less fear of death - Periphery: Not explicit, but may be assuming character types as combinations of traits from the eight stages of development Otto Rank – Conflict, Intrapsychic - Core Tendency: Minimizing fear of life and fear of death o Fear of life and fear of death is an un-resolvable conflict, making life stressful by nature - Core Characteristics: o FEAR OF LIFE: Inherent tendency toward separation and individualization  Separation and individualization: leaving your childhood family/ home/ friends to go to college o FEAR OF DEATH: Inherent tendency toward union, fusion, dependency  Union, fusion, dependency: staying with your family; being married to the same person for years o WILL: Organized sense of who and what one is that can help to minimize fears of life and death.  Not a defensive process - Development o WILL (as defined before) o COUNTERWILL (early beginnings of will)  Defiance against parental wishes  Parental responses to counterwill influences how the child’s will develops - Periphery o Nonideal Types  AVERAGE PERSON: just wants to fit in with everyone else/ what society wants • Trying to avoid fear of life (fear of change) • Growing intensity of fear of death
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