Psy Beh 175S - Study Guide - Final.doc
Psy Beh 175S - Study Guide - Final.doc

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University of California - Irvine
Psychology and Social Behavior
Susan Charles

Dear Class, Some more details about your upcoming exam: 1. You are covering material from 6 separate discussions; from those 6 essay questions, you will answer 4 of them; I will decide which 4 – this is different from the th last test, where you decided on the 4 to answer. ALSO, there is a 7 essay question (at the end of this study guide) that will be included on the test. 2. I am also including some (2) short answer test questions. Questions like, “Describe a study that found support for…..” or “Describe a study where…” 3. Because I am including short answer, you will have fewer multiple choice questions – probably more like 15 or 20, but definitely not 25. (18 total, choose 16) 2/15 : Romantic love, sexual desire Difference between the two types of love (romantic vs. passionate) - Romantic love: denotes the powerful feelings of emotional infatuation and attachment between intimate partners o Desire to seek a commitment and an attachment with one partner  Deep feelings of commitment and intimacy  Formation of mutual long term plans o Originally evolved in the context of infant-caregiver attachment o Promotes pair bonding o Take care of vulnerable offspring - Passionate love: a temporary state of heightened interest in and preoccupation with a specific individual o Characterized by intense desires of proximity and physical contact, resistance to separation, and feelings of excitement and euphoria when receiving the partner’s attention o Eventually transforms into companionable love  Desires for proximity and resistance to separation becomes less urgent, and feelings of security, care, and comfort predominate o Associated with sexual desire  Individuals seek out opportunities for sexual activity  Proximity seeking  Cues for reproduction  Tends to peak early in a relationship The hormones/neurotransmitters associated with each (oxytocin/vasopressin; testosterone and progesterone; dopamine; endogenous opioids) - Romantic love: Oxytocin/ vasopressin, endogenous opioids, dopamine(?) - Passionate love: testosterone and progesterone, gonadal estrogens and androgens Vasopressin/oxytocin and attachment - Best known for its role in childbirth and nursing - Regulates a range of emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and biological processes that facilitate social bonding by fostering conditioned associations between specific social partners and intrinsic feelings of reward - Female rats have far more extensive Oxytocin brain circuits than male rats - Prairie vole and Montane vole study (monogamy) - Women show greater Oxytocin release during sexual activity than men - Role of Oxytocin in both love and desire may contribute to the widely observed phenomenon that women report experiencing greater interconnections between love and desire than do men Non-verbal expressions of love and lust - Love: Duchenne smiles, gesticulation - Lust: licking, puckering and touching lips, protruding tongue, biting or sucking on lips Can someone be in love with his/her spouse and still not be faithful? Based on what you read and what we discussed in class, what do you think? (Use science to justify your answer, and include physiology as well as other factors in your response) 2/22: Risky families and the mind/body connection What are the pathways through which mothers affect the health of their children? - Deficits in children’s control of and expression of emotions and in social competence - Disturbances in physiologic and neuroendocrine system regulation that can have cumulative, long-term, adverse effects o SAM (sympathetic-adrenomedullary) reactivity o HPA (hypothalamic –pituitary–adrenal) reactivity o Serotonergic functioning - Poor health behaviors, especially substance abuse HPA and SAM axes and how they relate to parenting behaviors, emotional expression and emotion regulation - HPA Axis: modulates a wide range of somatic functions, including energy release, immune activity, mental activity, growth, and reproductive function o Allows the body to respond to stress by preparing for short-term demands o Chronically elevated corticosteroids have potentially deleterious effects on developing competent cognitive and emotional functioning o Persistent activation of the HPA system is associated with immune deficiencies, inhibited growth, delayed sexual maturity, damage to the hippocampus, cognitive impairment, and certain forms of psychological problems, such as depression o Attachment affects cortisol levels o Also affected by parental nurturing behavior  Studies of rhesus monkeys found that ventral contact between offspring and mother following a threatening event promotes rapid decreases in HPA activity  Human study found that a family environment characterized by few positive affectionate interactions and a high level of negative interactions (including irrational punishment and unavailable or erratic attention from parents) was associated with abnormal cortisol response profiles, diminished immunity, and frequent illnesses - SAM Axis: mostly enacts the fight or flight response o Chronic stress of a risky family can repeatedly activate the SAM axis in children  Most children show increases in sympathetic arousal in response to exposure to angry adult interactions, and children in families marked by conflict are exposed to this physiological activation on a recurrent basis. o Leads to wear and tear on cardiovascular system o Secondary pathway to cardiovascular problems: impact of risky families routes through development of hostile interpersonal style, which increases the frequency of conflctual social interactions, recurrent SAM activation, and the likely development of risk factors for coronary heart disease o Findings suggest that children in risky families may experience reductions in PNS activity, an important counterregulatory “brake” on SAM activity, thereby contributing to dysregulation of the SAM system. Serotonergic dyresgulation - Can be caused by the abuse/stress of risky families and lead to health problems like depression, suicidality, aggression and substance abuse - Research has been scarce partly due to invasive nature of assessment o Existing evidence suggests children from risky families experience Serotonergic dysregulation - May be due both to genetic and experiential factors o First- and second-degree relatives of depressed abused children have elevated rates of depression, suicidality, and aggressive behavior o Children from families characterized by deficient nurturing produced boys at risk for delinquency who also showed evidence of serotonergic dysfunction Types of poor parenting - Conflict and aggression: o High levels of conflict at home sensitize children to anger.  Children react w/greater distress, anger, anxiety, and fear when they hear angry/ conflictual talking o Linked to aggression, conduct disorder, delinquency and antisocial behavior, anxiety, depression, and suicide o Sons more likely to be rejected and victimized by peers while daughters had more avoidant attitudes and feelings about closeness/ intimacy - Cold, unsupportive, and neglectful: o A wide range of family characteristics and measures, including emotional neglect of children; parenting that is unresponsive or rejecting; a lack of parental availability for, involvement in, and supervision of child activities; a lack of cohesiveness, warmth, and support within the family; and an experience of alienation, detachment, or feelings of lack of acceptance by children. o Linked to internalizing symptoms such as depression, suicidal behavior, and anxiety disorders, and externalizing symptoms such as aggressive, hostile, oppositional, and delinquent behavior Neglectful homes and problems with processing emotions o Parental nurturing appears to facilitate the development of primitive coping behaviors (babies begin to regulate their emotional responses by engaging in behaviors such as sucking to soothe themselves) o An intervention for mothers of irritable newborns that improved maternal responsiveness, attentiveness, and control also resulted in an increase in infant self- soothing behaviors From your reading, you learned that risky families are related to HPA or SAM dysfunction. Select one of these axes (either the HPA or SAM axis). Define it, explain how being in a risky family (define risky families) alters its activity, and discuss what emotional experiences and health outcomes are related to this dysregulation. 2/27: Emotion regulation Antecedent- versus response-focused coping strategies - Antecedent-focused coping: things we do before response tendencies have become fully activated and have changed our behavior and physiological responses. o Best form of coping, as there are no emotions to regulate o Reappraisal: changing how we think about a situation in order to decrease its emotional impact  Occurs during cognitive change  No significant physiological correlation  Decreases emotional experience  Less cognitively costly • Evoked early on in the emotion-generative process, so this strategy typically does not require continual self-regulatory effort during an emotional event.  Better memory performance  Does not elicit others’ physiological activation  More effective - Response-focused coping: things we do once an emotion is already under way, after response tendencies have been generated. o Suppression: inhibiting outward signs of emotion  Occurs during response modulation  Changes how others perceive you, but not how you actually feel  Increases physiological response  Does not decrease emotional experience  More cognitively costly • Requires self monitoring and self-corrective action throughout an emotional event, which requires a continual outlay of cognitive resources, reducing the resources available for processing events so that they can be remembered later.  Poorer memory performance  Elicits others’ physiological activation  Less effective Know the different types of strategies and how to define them - Situation selection: choosing one situation over another o Avoiding people/ places that annoy you - Situation modifications: tailoring a selected situation to modify its emotional impact o Making up an excuse to leave the person/ place that is annoying you - Attention deployment: selecting which aspects of the situation you focus on o Watching a terrible movie and concentrating on the special effects - Cognitive change: selecting which of the many possible meanings you will attach to that aspect o Seeing a move to a new city as an adventure rather than a goodbye - Response modulation: attempts to influence response tendencies once they have been elicited o Hiding your embarrassment when you trip and fall in public Question: Why does labeling an emotion help with emotion regulation? (in terms of both cognitive appraisals and in the specific part of the brain activated) - Talking about feelings is effective in minimizing the impact of negative emotions o Labeling an emotion takes away the ambiguity and uncertainty o HIV patients felt better after getting their test results, even if the results were positive  Stress and anxiety from the lack of knowing o Writing down an emotional experience allows the person to make sense of their experience via a structured narration - It disrupts the affective responses in the limbic system that would otherwise occur in the presence of negative stimuli o fMRIs showed that affective labeling diminished the response of the amygdala and other limbic regions to negative emotional images o affect labeling increases activity in the RVLPFC (which disrupts the amygdala’s response to emotionally evocative stimuli) What parts of the brain are related to labeling of emotional experience? - Right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex - Amygdala - Medial prefrontal cortex: mediates the relationship between the RVLPFC and amygdala activity From your readings, name two emotion regulation strategies that vary
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