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PSYCH 140M- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 23 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 140M
Professor
John Hagedorn
Study Guide
Midterm

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UC-Irvine
PSYCH 140M
Midterm EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 3- Short Term Memory 1/22/18
Memory span
Chunking
Forgetting short-term memory
Verbal short-term memory
Visual short-term memory
1) Memory Span: The longest list of items a person can accurately report
back in correct order 50% of the time could be digits, letters, or words.
Digit span: The number of digits that a person can retain and
recall.
Subject presented with sequence of digits
Subject attempts to repeat back the digits in the order they were
presented
Length of sequence increased until subject always fails
Digit Span- the point at which the subject correctly recalls the
sequence half the time.
-George Miller
The magical number seven plus or minus two- some limits on our
capacity for processing info.
-studied memory span performance (digits, letters, words)
-capacity of STM is 7 (word span) _+/-2 items for most people
though some people can remember 10 or more or as few as only
4/5. 5-9 average*
Improving Memory Span thru chunking
Chunking- organizing info into larger more manageable and
familiar units.
-A chunk can be a word, phrase, sentence, or any other info. That
we can put together to assign a single meaning or idea.
Ex) Its difficult to remember this sequence of 12 letters-
FB-INB-CC-IAIB-M
However, we can rearrange these things into 4 meaningful units
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Ex 2) KLCISNE -7 separate unrelated letters. Rearranged
-When we chunk things we chunk it into things that are FAMILIAR
to us.
Ex) 1492177618121941
-This sequence would be too much for STM (16 digits). If we
rearrange them.
*Chunks must be meaningful and familiar to you.
Rhythmic Grouping of Items
-Grouping items in 3’s leaving small gap in between groups is best
-Grouping items into 2’s is et est
ex) phone number (949-824-15-00)
-Also useful in long-term remembering as well
-Sometimes we can remember more things when items are
grouped in rhythms.
Short term forgetting
-Preventing a subject from thinking about or otherwise rehearsing
a sequence in STM causes the subject to forget the info.
-Peterson & Peterson (1959)
-Presented subjects with sequences of 3 unrelated consonants
-Sequences shown for 3 sec
-Immediately afterwards subjects shown a 3-digit number and
istruted to out akard  3’s for up to 18 se
-rehearsal prevention task- activity that prohibits repeating of test
items.
-Subjects then instructed to recall original 3 consonants
-Subjects then performed more similar trials
*Murdock used 3 letters as his stimuli same as Peterson. Used a
flashing light- only difference was that the stimuli 3 letters
formed a word 3-letter word.
-Other condition gave subject 3-3letter words
-He found that the results were almost exactly the same for 3
words Murdock as for 3 consonants for Peterson’s*.
-emphasizes that they both show the same forgetting pattern.
-meaningful items (meaningful word) are three meaningful units
9 letters together.
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