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PSYCH 9A Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Wilhelm Wundt, Interference Theory, Operant Conditioning Chamber

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Bruce Berg
Study Guide

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● Attetio igs ojets ito ou osiousess
● The futhe aa a ojet is fo the foal poit of ou attetio, the futhe it falls elo the theshold of
○ Metooe epeiet
● Foal attetio a ol e foused o a fe eleets at a tie
● Tpes of tasks: asolute judgets ifoatio, shot-term memory (items)
● A it of ifoatio to alteaties,  its =  alteaties
● Diffeees etee huks and bits
● Reodig
● Fleile-resource theories
○ VWM eflets a esoue that a e alloated to tade-off the number of representations that are
stored for their precision
● Liited-item theories
○ VWM has a had liit o the ue of items that can be stored
● Epeiet 
○ Osees aot iease the ue of ites i VWM o deease the peisio of the
representations even in a task that requires only low precision.
● Epeiet ,,
○ Moe esus less feedak ad diffeet fiaial ieties, does’t ateiall hage the
conclusion. However; when the the cue-delay time to is shortened to enable cue-based selection from
iconic (visual sensory) memory, a lower precision requirement enables significantly more items to be
selected than a high precision requirement.
● ABBA ad othe otols fo effets of fatigue o leaig
● Lati suae
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Sternberg 1966, 1969 - memory scanning, serial exhaustive search, additive stage model
● “eies of ues flashed, the a test ue is sho
○ Was the test digit pat of the oigial seies?
○ Patiipats seeed to seah the seies seiall ad did ot stop afte the foud the taget
○ “eial-exhaustive vs self-terminating search vs present, absent recognition trials.
● Model of fou poessig stages i ite eogitio; hat is the eidee fo a stage
Schulman et al., speed of shift of visual attention
Posner experiment, go vs no-go; costs/benefits
● The side of the see the dot appeared in and its proximity to the arrow both affected reaction time
● What ould e eidee fo a aalogue attetio odel s hat ould e eidee fo a uatal aouts
of movement of attention
○ Moig spotlight theo of attetio
Hazard function
Green and Swets - SDT, dice problem, utility functions
● Be sue ou udestad Hoeoks  ad , patiulal d-prime, likelihood ratio F-test decomposition for
two-independent variables: mean, main effects (x,y), interaction (x*y)
Attendance operating characteristic
● Classoo eaple lasses oelap, ad ou ust deide ho to diide ou tie etee oth
● Negatie oelatio etee the to tasks if ou do ell i oe, ou o’t do ell i the othe i-so-far
as the tasks overlap (i.e., use common resources)
● d-prime analysis applied to various domains: economics (swords, plowshares), law (innocent versus guilty),
sigal detetio, …
Thorndike’s puzzle box
● Cats leaed to esape o though tial ad eo
Law of effect - animals tend to repeat behaviors that are rewarded
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