PSYCH 9B- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 84 pages long!)

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Published on 29 Mar 2018
School
UC-Irvine
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 9B
UC-Irvine
PSYCH 9B
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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The Philosophy of Learning
Where does knowledge come from?
Nurture
Empiricism (environment)
John Locke says whatever we're exposed to in our
environment are the sole basis of knowledge
There are no in born differences between people
according to this view
We have 3 basic abilities
Sensory abilities (see, hear, taste, smell,
touch)
®
Ability to make copies of sensory input (seeing
an exit sign, close eyes and imagine that exit
sign)
®
Make associations between those
copies/representations
®
§
Nature
Rationalism (nativism)
We are born with innate knowledge or reasoning
abilities that allow us to understand the world
around us (e.g. Plato, Kant, Chomsky)
Inferences made, associations formed, are
constrained by species, heredity, maturation
Innate tendencies to come to certain conclusions; to
interpret certain sensory information
We are born with sense-making equipment
§
Who cares?
People's expectations about knowledge matter
§
Expectations and Learning
Rosenthal & Jacobson (1968)
Told teachers: based on test results, certain students will
bloom and show accelerated intellectual growth
§
"Bloomers" selected randomly
§
Week 1 Tuesday
Monday, March 28, 2016
11:25 AM
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"Bloomers" selected randomly
§
When tested 8 months later, selected students showed
greater gains in IQ and academic performance than
classmates
§
Why might I care?
Views about the source of knowledge
->Influences expectations
->Influences behaviors
->Influences learning
®
§
The Biology of Learning
How is a neuron like an 8th grade girl?
The neuron
The basic unit of communication in the nervous system
§
It's a cell that receives signals from other neurons and
responds by either sending the signal or not
§
Parts of the neuron: dendrites, soma or cell body, axon,
axon terminals
§
Synapse
Neurons don’t touch each other
The gap between the neurons
When an electric message comes down the neuron,
vesicles in the axon terminal migrate to the
membrane of the axon terminal, releasing
neurotransmitters into the synapse which are then
picked up by receptors on the postsynaptic neuron
and fed into the cell body where it will decide to fire
again
Depending on the neurotransmitter and whether
they "speak the same language", that will determine
whether the message gets passed along
§
Plasticity
The capacity of neurons to change the way they function as a
result of experience
There can be:
Changes in how much neurotransmitter a presynaptic
neuron releases
§
Changes in sensitivity to neurotransmitters in the
postsynaptic neuron (e.g. more receptors)
§
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Document Summary

John locke says whatever we"re exposed to in our environment are the sole basis of knowledge. There are no in born differences between people according to this view. Ability to make copies of sensory input (seeing an exit sign, close eyes and imagine that exit sign) We are born with innate knowledge or reasoning abilities that allow us to understand the world around us (e. g. plato, kant, chomsky) Inferences made, associations formed, are constrained by species, heredity, maturation. Innate tendencies to come to certain conclusions; to interpret certain sensory information. Told teachers: based on test results, certain students will bloom and show accelerated intellectual growth. When tested 8 months later, selected students showed greater gains in iq and academic performance than classmates. The basic unit of communication in the nervous system. It"s a cell that receives signals from other neurons and responds by either sending the signal or not.