PUBHLTH 1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Drug Injection, Insulin Resistance, Independent Community And Health Concern

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24 Oct 2017
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STUDY GUIDE for MIDTERM
GOOD LUCK !!!!
Summary:
Please note: audios and videos chapters 1-15 are available on your class website
Book 1: Chapters 1-15
Video clips:
Readings for week 1-5
PH 1 midterm- key terms & ideas
Ch. 1
What is PH
The fulfillment of society's interest in assuring the conditions in which people can be healthy
Organized community efforts aimed at the prevention of disease and the promotion of health
o E.g. drinking water in US and other countries
7 dimensions of health
o Emotional healthfeel and express emotions, self esteem...
o Intellectual healthopen mind and learn new things
o Spiritual healthmeaning and direction in the life
o Occupational healthrelates to place of employment
o Social healthrelationship, interaction with others
o Physical healthperform normal activities of daily life
o Environmental healthexternal factors that affect health, water, air...
“the future of public health”
definition of PH
The science and art of preventing disease and prolonging life, physical health, and efficiency
through organized community efforts
core functions of PH
Assessment of the health of the population
Development of public health policies
o Treatment plans
Assurance of the availability of needed services (protect health and prevent disease)
“rectangularizing” the life curve
Differences between normal and typical aging
Typical agingmajority of people have problems as they age
o The slope decreases at a quicker rate
Ideal (normal) agingphysiological functions are decreasing however at a slow rate
o Not the immediate manifestation of chronic illness
o What we would like to have
PH disciplines
Epidemiology (epidemics/obesity, prostate cancer in western countries + Asia), new diseases
o The basic science of public health
o The study of epidemics
o Aims to control spread of infectious diseases
o Seeks cause of chronic disease and ways to limit harmful exposures
Statistics (calculate risks, testing the new drug)
o Collection of data on the pop.
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o These numbers are diagnostic tools for the health of the community
o The science of stats is used to calculate risks, benefits...
Biomedical sciences (AIDS, flu, Hanta virus, Cancer...)
o Infectious diseasespathogens
o Chronic diseases
o Genetics
Environmental health science (new chemicals)
o Health effects of environmental exposures
o Air quality, water quality, solid and hazardous wastes, safe food and drugs, global
environmental change
Social and Behavioral sciences (Latino Paradox)
o Behavior is now the leading factor in affecting people's health
o Theories of health behavior: social environment affects people's behavior
o Major health threats: tobacco, poor diet and physical inactivity, injuries
o Maternal and child healtha social issue
Health policy and management
o Role of medical care in public health
o Cost of medical care in US is out of control
o US has a high percentage of pop. without health insurancethese people often lack
access to medical care
o Quality of medical care can be measures, and is often questionable
Primary, secondary, & tertiary prevention
PrimaryPrevention of the occurrence or incidence of illness or injury
o Deals with prevention of disease or infirmity when people are at-risk of the disease
o Interventions are specifically targeted toward a disease state
o Individuals may be at-risk for disease state
SecondaryPrevention of disease or injury progression
o Prevention of severity or prevalence of disease or injury
o Individual already has a disease state
o Seeks to alleviate or lessen symptoms
o Seeks to stop progression
TertiaryPrevention of permanent disability or death due to illness or injury
o Individual has been cured of disease
o Prevention of recurrence
chain of causation
Agent
Host
Environment
Interventions can focus on any of these targets
E.g. Malaria, West Nile virus, Hanta virus
o Need to know who is spreading the disease (any vector? spread from person to
person?), what kind of environment needs to be present for the multiple of pathogens,
what kind of interventions need to be made to minimize the spreading of the disease?
High dietary fat/type of food/schools/education, cooking class (prevent obesity)...
Ch. 2
market justice
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social justice
Connected with public health
cost vs. benefit in PH
Tragedy of the commons
Exemplified in many environmental laws
"Freedom to pollute"
Behavior on indirect harm: tragedy of the commons
o In industrial world "commons" is air, water...
o A ban on a gas-driven lawn mowers (1 vs. many)
o Elimination of drive-through windows in banks and fast food restaurants (cut
pollution from idling car engines)...1 vs. many
E.g. Europe: stop car engineno idling car engines
“paternalism”
Behavior by an organization or state which limits some person or group's liberty or autonomy
for what is presumed to be that person's or group's own good
o E.g. children are required to wear helmets when riding bikes by adults/law (or it is
more acceptable for children), however adults themselves are not restrained by that
rule
To prevent harm to others, it is generally acceptable for the government to restrict individual
freedom
o To protect individuals from their own actions? (opposed by libertarians)
o Only to prevent harm to others (banned smoking indoors, smoking itself cannot be
regulated in adults)
Political interference w/ science
There is always the possibility of tension
Current conservative control of federal government intensifies the conflict
Criticism of Bush administration for going too far in misrepresenting science to support its
policies
Ch. 3
Administrative agencies
Role of the courts
Legislativepasses statutes
Executivepublic health agencies carry out the law; may issue regulations consistent with
statutes
Judiciallaws and regulations can be challenged in court
OSHA (occupational safety and health administration)
CDC
Main epidemiologic and assessment agency for the nation
Publishes Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)
Center for Health Statisticscollects data on US pop. concerning all aspects of health
Centers on infectious diseases, chronic disease, injury prevention, and others
NIH
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Document Summary

Please note: audios and videos chapters 1-15 are available on your class website. Rectangularizing the life curve: differences between normal and typical aging, typical aging majority of people have problems as they age, the slope decreases at a quicker rate. Ideal (normal) aging physiological functions are decreasing however at a slow rate: not the immediate manifestation of chronic illness, what we would like to have. Primary, secondary, & tertiary prevention: primary prevention of the occurrence or incidence of illness or injury, deals with prevention of disease or infirmity when people are at-risk of the disease. Interventions are specifically targeted toward a disease state. Individuals may be at-risk for disease state: secondary prevention of disease or injury progression, prevention of severity or prevalence of disease or injury. Individual already has a disease state: seeks to alleviate or lessen symptoms, seeks to stop progression, tertiary prevention of permanent disability or death due to illness or injury.

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