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PUBHLTH 1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Orthohantavirus, Outline Of Health Sciences, Environmental Health

22 pages26 viewsSpring 2018

Department
Public Health
Course Code
PUBHLTH 1
Professor
Zuzana Bic
Study Guide
Final

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Week 1 Study Guide
#1: Video clips, Public Health News, Chapter 1-3, and all required materials for week 1
#2: Key terms
Chapter 1: Public Health: Science, Politics, and Prevention
Review
Define public health
- The fulfillment of society’s interest in assuring conditions in which people can be
healthy. Organized community efforts aimed at the prevention of disease and the
promotion of health.
Identify the goal of public health.
-maximum health for all
Compare and contrast public health with medical practice.
- Diagnosis, treatment planning, therapy
-Often focuses on the individual rather than the community as a whole
Summarize the core functions of public health.
-Assessment: agency collects, assembles, analyzes and makes avail info on health of
popul, Policy Development: scientific knowledge to develop of a straetegic approach for
improving the community’s health, and Assurance (protect health and prevent disease)-
assure services needed for protection of ph in the community are available and accessible
to everyone
Describe the disciplines of public health.
-Epidemiology: Study of popul to seek the causes of health and disease; the study of the
distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human popul
- Statistics: a scientific discipline or method, a way of gathering and analyzing data to
extract info, seek causation, and calculate probabilities
-Biomedical Sciences:aids, flu, hanta virus, cancer
-Environmental Health science: new chemicals
-Social and Brhavioral Sciences- Latino Paradox
-Health and Policy Management
List the three levels of prevention.
-Primary intervention: prevents illness or injury from occurring at all, by preventing
exposure exposure to risk factors
-Secondary intervention: seeks to minimize the severity of the illness or the damage due
to an injury-causing event once the event has occurred
-Tertiary intervention: seeks to minimize disability by providing medical care and
rehabilitation services
Illustrate approaches to designing interventions that prevent undesirable health outcomes.
-one approach is to think of prevention on 3 levels: primary, secondary, tertiary
-another is thinking of an illness or injury as a result of a chain of causation involving an
agent, a host and the environment.
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Explain public health’s role in the prevention of terrorism.
-crashing plane 9/11: emergency plan; secondary prevention: minimizing damage &
tertiary prevention: providing medical care to those injured in the disaster
-mitigate the effects of obvious disasters and in recognizing and controlling the more
insidious effects of bioterrorism
Chapter 2: Why Is Public Health Controversial?
Review
Define the mission of public health.
-fulfilling society’s interest in assuring conditions in which people can be healthy
Explain public health’s history with social reform.
-19th century reformers pushed for sanitary science and public hygiene, improved
housing, trade unions, abolition of child labor, maternal & child health, temperance
-conservatives resist broad vision of public health, starve govt of funds for healthcare for
all
Identify the economic impact of public health efforts.
-most ph measures have negative economic impact of some segment of popul
-industries resist ph efforts
-ex.: tobacco harmful to health and causes millions in medical causes annually but only
has minor restrictions because it is a major industry in the South, supporting jobs and
providing profits for tobacco companies
List examples of government regulations that protect the environment.
-restrictions on timber harvesting in the pacific northwest are regularly under attack bc
they maybe cost jobs in the lumber industry although they may preserve job in the fishing
and tourist industries & contribute to long term stable climate
-tobacco restrictions
Articulate reasons why restrictions on individual behavior are acceptable.
-sometimes it causes direct harms to others
-sometimes the individual harms themselves (seatbelt laws).
-tragedy of the commons: indirect harm to others (air, water, and environment ppl share)
Summarize the moral and religious opposition to public health measures.
-Religious oppositions-mostly when it confronts sexual and reproductive issues: sexed in
schools and contraceptives -> opposed by religious groups who believe they promote
immoral behavior
-Moralism- alcohol and drug policies -> argued by libertarians who believe alcohol and
drug consumption is private behave and doesn’t effect others
-could interfere with scientists studying how to prevent HIV
Illustrate ways that the federal government has manipulated the release of scientific
information.
-Geroge bush admin distort scientific evidence to fit political agenda: global warming
-pressure for CDC to remove information on sex education and replace evidence of
effectiveness for condoms for effectiveness of abstinence and failure rate of condoms.
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Chapter 3: Powers and Responsibilities of Government
Review
Compare and contrast the roles of state and federal governments in public health.
-state govts have laws to collect data about popul, immuniz children before entering
school, and regulate environ for santiation and regulate safety
-federal govt regulates interstate commerce and collect tax to pay debts and provide for
common defense and general welfare
Explain how public health is organized at the local level and how local health
departments are funded.
-varies from state to state
-most common local agency is the county health department
-large city might have its own municipal health department
Identify the functions and responsibilities of state health departments.
-States have primary constitutional responsibility and authority for the protection
-collects an analyzes data provided by local agencies
-maintain standards of competence and quality of care
-people who lack private health insurance are concern of state
-determine eligibility rules for coverage
List federal agencies involved with public health and describe their missions.
-Department of health and human services(HHS): environ health
-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): main assessment and epidemiologic
agency for the nation, mission to prevent human disease
-National Institute of Health (NIH): biomedical research
Give examples of public health nongovernmental agencies and describe the purpose that
they play.
-play roles in education, lobbying and research
-American Heart Association
-America Cancer Scoiety
-focus on specific disease
-provide funding
Chapter 1: PH: Science, Politics and Prevention
Public health is involved in creating policies and measures that improve the health of the
community, such as seat belts and safe water.
A. True
B. False
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