Highlighted questionsparts of questions = things I dont have handouts fordont know the answer to, please fill in if you can :) Essay Questions 1) Part 2 of War Without End (Schwartz): Explain why Schwartz argues that counterinsurgency policy is de facto collective punishment of civilians and that modern warfare as practiced in Iraq constitutes state terrorism. What is the minimum estimate made by medical researches of Iraqi deaths since the US invasion in 2003? Where are these problems located and what would be a solution? Collective punishment refers to when noncombatantscivilians are subjected to violence. This is also a form of state terrorism. The USs counterinsurgency policy justified the killing of innocent civilians to minimize threats against the military, and further the USs occupation goals. The specific tactics and strategies the military used to fight insurgents inflicted indiscriminate violence on innocent Iraqi civilians. By examining the methods used by the military to fight the insurgency, one can see clear evidence that noncombatants were regularly subjected to violence and intimidation. Regular routines included: Violent home invasions, beatings, arrests, and killings when searching for insurgents Frequent shootings of suspicious citizens at military checkpoints These checkpoints were hard to see. When US soldiers ordered cars to stop in English Iraqis did not understand. The US would start shooting at the car which made the Iraqis go faster instead of stopping that caused them their death. Drone strikes which killed citizens as collateral damage Torture and the use of martial law in Fallujah The whole city was under collective punishment unlike the Haditha and Baiji incidents One specific example includes an incident in Haditha, in which 19 innocent civilians were killed because a soldier thought he heard of the machine gun loading. Counterinsurgency policy focused on protecting the army even in the face of potential danger, even if it meant killing innocent civilians. Even perceived threats justified the use of lethal firepower. It was also important to capture and kill insurgents. So even when US lives werent in danger civilians deaths were justified. The use of seemingly indiscriminate violence was not only a strategy to protect US lives at all costs, but also to punish civilian communities for housing insurgents. Tactics were designed to use the threat of violence to intimidate civilians out of housing and supporting insurgents. The US sent the message to Iraqi civilians that violence would be used against them if they did not cooperate.