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SOCECOL 194W- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 43 pages long!)


Department
Social Ecology
Course Code
SOCECOL 194W
Professor
Mona Lynch
Study Guide
Final

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UC-Irvine
SOCECOL 194W
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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SE194W Lecture 1 Week 1 1/9/2017 6:58:00 PM
Introduction to Field Methods
Quizzes must be taken between Wednesday afternoon and Sunday, 11 each
week
Online activities must be completed and posted on discussion board each
week by Sunday 11PM
Research questionsin partdrive methodological approach. Examples of
different kinds of research questions:
1) does political affiliation/perspective shape individuals’ attitudes
about the state’s economic situation? (survey)
2) do overt emotional displays by testifying victims increase the
likelihood of jury conviction? (experiment)
3) do children play more interactively in different types of
playgrounds? (field methods)
o looking at observable behavior in naturalistic setting
not all research problems/questions are appropriate for all methods
for this class, selected project topic must lend itself to qualitative
field methods in the form of observable behavior in a naturalistic
setting
the value of systematic observations
real life examples to illustrate problems with relying on gut,
common sense, personal experience, and/or logic alone
o buying cars (how much is it looks and jazzy features vs.
reliability/durability/efficiency)
o making judgments about people just by what is posted on
Facebook
overview of problems
o “Agreement” knowledge may be flaws and inaccurate due to
source biases; experiential knowledge limited, unsystematic,
and unique
5 common errors in making casual observations
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inaccurate observation (we don’t actually capture what we are
seeing; happens a lot)
overgeneralization (an absolutely functional heuristic we use);
draw conclusions that are supposed to be made systematically
selective observation (refers to cognitive shortcut or bias where
we can draw conclusion early on or we have an expectation early on
that will confirm or make the case for us); confirmation bias; may
also happen when we notice the things that are most striking and
we don’t pay attention to everything, the less flashy things; the
background
illogical reasoning (when we make a social science claim, it needs
to have logical support)
taint of ideology and politics (world view; we understand and
absorb the world to how we think about the world should be and
what we believe; shapes our world view; recognize that in
ourselves and minimize the impact)
Appropriate methodology as mitigation
By using agreed upon modes of observation, governed by specific
rules for making those observations, such problems are minimized
in social science research
Differing kinds of research inquiries
Ideographic vs. nomothetic approaches
o Ideographic = very detail oriented (case study or in a single
site and doesn’t aim to generalize to a population but rather
to uncover processes or relationships within a given complex
setting)
o Nomothetic = how do we speak about large groups or
populations; doing research that tries to sample so you can
generalize to a giant population
Inductive vs. deductive approaches
o Inductive = exploratory asking open-ended question aim to
uncover processes like (why do such and such phenomena
happen in this setting)
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