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University of California - Riverside
Computer Science
CS 008

Consists of all the programs that System software enable the computer and its peripheral devices to function smoothly Set of programs that coordinates:  Interactions of hardware Operating system components to each other  Interaction between application software and computer hardware 1. Locate and activate the BIOS 2. Initiate the POST 3. Load OS Booting process steps 4. Configure and customize the system 5. Load the system utilities 6. Authenticate user Starting computer when it has not yet Cold boot been turned on Restarting a computer that is already Warm boot on Single tasking Run only one application at a time Permit more than one application to Multi-tasking run at the same time Preemptive multitasking Ensures all applications have fair access to the CPU An area that temporarily holds data and instructions, is needed to make Buffer the processing of instructions more fluid Uses portions of a hard disk to extend Virtual memory RAM A hard disk file that serves as a temporary storage space for pages, the Swap file bits and bytes that the operating system will access as the user works Transferring files between RAM and Paging the hard disk The excessive transfer of files from the Thrashing hard disk to RAM and back Performance is better than hard disk virtual memory because accessing files ReadyBoost on flash memory is quicker than accessing information on a hard disk Signals that inform the OS that an Interrupts event has occurred and is in need of immediate attention Miniprograms that immediately Interrupt handlers respond when an interrupt occurs Most popular interface that uses graphics and the point-and-click Graphical user interface (GUI) technology of the mouse to make the operating system and program easier to use Enable you to avoid memorize key words (such as copy and paste) and Menu-driven user interface syntax (a set of rules for entering commands) Requires you to type commands using keywords that tell the OS what to do Command-line user interfaces (such as Format and Copy) one line at a time First to use a GUI Mac OS Open source and free Linux Oldest and most powerful Most software written for it Hard to use UNIX Most popular operating system Windows Specialized operating systems Embedded operating systems designed for specific applications Made by google Android It is open source iOS Made by apple Open source Source code is available to users Programs that work in tandem with the operating system and are considered essential to the effective System utilities management of a computer. They perform such functions as system backup, antivirus protection, etc. Copies data found on the hard disk to a Backup software backup device Full backup Includes all files and data Incremental backup Includes only those files changed and added since the previous backup Antivirus program Protects the computer from viruses Utility software that organizes and File manager manages the data stored on your disk Search utility Enables you to locate files Find and resolve disk file storage Disk scanning program problems Doesn’t rectify any problems, instead it improves system performance and Disk cleanup utilities increases storage space by removing files that you no longer need Reorganize stored data in a more Disk defragmentation program efficient manner Exchanges programs and data efficiently by reducing the size of files File compression utility by as much as 80 percent without harming the data Single file that cont
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