PSYC 002 Quiz: PSYC 002 Exam One Study Guide

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PSYC 002
Dr.Carolyn B.Murray

LECTURE 1 ● WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? ○ discipline - a major subject of study in colleges and universities ○ Science - a method of conducting research and of understanding behavioral data ○ profession - a calling that requires one to apply special knowledge, abilities ○ The scientific study of behavior and mental processes (normal and abnormal) and psychological, social, and biological processes ○ STRUCTURALISM- introspection (what did people feel, sense, and imagine?) ○ FUNCTIONALISM- consciousness serves a function ● GOALS ○ Describe how people respond to certain things ■ Behaviorally, emotionally, physically ○ Interpret why people respond in such ways ○ Predict behavior under conditions ○ Control (beyond freedom and dignity) ● EXAMPLES OF WHAT PSYCHOLOGISTS FOCUS ON ○ Rearing children (from the womb to the tomb) - HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ○ Getting others to honor our wishes ○ What happens psychologically when you go over the speed limit, and you are stopped by the police? ○ What did you think about when you wrote your self statement for college? ■ Important dates and memories that stand out to you ○ What about dating, roommates, etc. ● WHAT DO PSYCHOLOGISTS DO? ○ Teachers ○ Researchers ○ Service providers (therapists, counselors, hospital workers, police dept ○ Administrators ○ Consultants ● TYPES OF PSYCHOLOGISTS ○ Clinical, cognitive, community, psychometric/quantitative, comparative, counseling, developmental, educational, industrial/organizational, family, experimental, general, personality, physiological, sports, school, social, health, forensic, environmental ● ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGISTS ○ Study how the built or physical environment affects human behavior ○ Conduct research/apply their knowledge to designing safe and ergonomic spaces that are conducive (likely/possible) to emotional well-being (colorful, open floor plans) ● FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGISTS ○ Child custody/family law ○ Violence risk assessment ○ Civil law (personal injury case) ○ Social science research (explaining a scholarly topic such as memory research to a jury) ○ medication/dispute resolution ○ Jury selection ○ Mental state examinations of criminal defendants (insanity, competency to stand trial, etc) ● CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY ○ Specialized branch of social psychology- study of consumers and their behavior ○ INCLUDES: wants/needs and what influences their purchasing habits ○ Ideal shelf space @ eye level ■ Monopolizing shelf space ● HISTORY OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY ○ John. B Watson founder of behaviorism in America ○ After getting fired from his academic post at Johns Hopkins, Watson began working for one of the biggest advertising agencies in NYC (J. Walter Thompson) ● CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY TECHNIQUES ○ Run emotional ideas ○ Highlight the flaws ○ Reposition the competition ○ Promote exclusivity ○ Introduce fear, uncertainty, & doubt ● BRIEF HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY ○ Dual roots ■ Philosophy ■ Natural science ○ Philosophy ■ Logic ■ Socrates (496-300 B.C.) ■ Plato 9428-348 B.C) ● Mind separable from the body ● Knowledge is innate ● Information based on logic ■ Aristotle ● Careful observation ● Knowledge based on experience ● Soul not separable from the body ■ Rene Descartes (1595-1630) ● Knowledge was innate ● Mind not separable from the body ■ John Locke (1632-1704) ● empiricism - knowledge derived from sense experience ● Mind at birth was a ‘blank slate’ ○ FOUR EVENTS CATAPULTED PSYCHOLOGY INTO A DISCIPLINE ■ Origin of the species by means of natural selection (Charles Darwin 1859) ○ Charles Darwin ■ Naturalist who proposed that species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors ● Natural selection ■ Legitimized comparative psychology ■ Humans act in the same way that primates act (comparative psychology) ○ Sir Francis Galton ■ Correlation, regression towards the mean, intelligence runs in families - eugenicism - wealthy people superior to others ■ First scientific theory measurement of intelligence ■ Developed the correlation coefficient ■ Father of the Eugenic movement ○ Gregor Mendel ■ Father of the modern genetics ■ Partially the basis of the Hereditary-Environment controversy ○ Inductive reasoning​ - (from the specific to the general) as opposed to ​deductive reasoning​ (from the general to the specific) ○ Wilhelm Wundt ■ Father of Psychology ■ First formal laboratory for the psychological research ■ School of ​Structuralism ■ technique : ​Introspection ● Focus on an aspect of something else in the environment ● ex) describing how a certain surface feels ○ Was not consistency between the different subjects ○ Variation of people that feel different things ○ Might not be consistent in the same person ○ William James (1842-1910) ■ School of ​Functionalism ■ Darwinian theory applied to the mind ○ John B. Watson 91878-1958) ■ Father of Behaviorism ■ Most important influence on psychology until the 1950s ■ S-R Theory ■ S: Stimulus ■ R: Response ■ You can measure the stimulus response ■ Look at what you can measure objectively ■ Take a stimulus (something that is measurable), then look at the person’s response ● IN THE BEGINNING ○ During the 1950’s, the ​Gestalt ​psychologists objected the mechanist of the behavioristic psychology and to the insignificant role it gave to perceptual processes ■ Visual perceptions ■ Learning ■ Memory ■ Role of insight in problem solving ○ Our brains operate in certain ways ○ After the 1950’s, modern Behaviorists took into consideration that: ■ Other stimulus input was ● Operated upon ● Transformed ● Processed ● Thought about before it was responded to ● PSYCHOANALYTIC ○ Developed to account for the abnormal behaviors exhibited by neurotics ○ Natural science ■ Scientific method ■ Logic ● THE NEED FOR A PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE ○ People greatly overestimate their lie detection accuracy, their eyewitness recollections, their interviewee assessments, their risk predictions, and their stock-picking talents ● HINDSIGHT BIAS ○ “i -knew-it-all-along” ○ Give half the members a supported psychological finding and give the other half a result ■ Common sense more easily describes what HAS happened than what WILL ○ Just asking people how and why they felt/acted as they did can sometimes be misleading ● OVERCONFIDENCE ○ WREAT -> WATER ○ ETRYN -> ENTRY ○ GRABE - BARGE ■ Knowing the answers tend to make us overconfident ● PERCEIVING ORDER IN RANDOM EVENTS ○ Perceive patterns ○ Random sequences often don’t look random ○ ***HINDSIGHT BIAS, OVERCONFIDENCE, AND TENDENCY TO PERCEIVE PATTERNS IN RANDOM EVENTS OFTEN LEAD TO OVERESTIMATE OUR INTUITION ● THE SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE: CURIOUS, SKEPTICAL, AND HUMBLE ○ Curiosity - passion to explore/understand without misleading/being misled ■ Empirical approach to test those claiming to see glowing auras around people’s bodies ○ Curious skepticism ■ What do you mean? ■ How do you know? ● When ideas compete, skeptical testing can reveal which ones best match the facts ○ Do parental behaviors determine children’s sexual orientation? ○ Putting a scientific attitude into practice requires not only curiosity and skepticism but HUMILITY ■ An awareness to our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives ● “The rat is always right” ● Many leaders were religious (Copernicus and Newton) ○ “In order to love and honor God, it is necessary to fully appreciate the wonders of his handiwork” ○ May cling to their preconceptions ● CRITICAL THINKING ○ Critical thinking - smart thinking ■ Examine assumptions ■ Appraise sources ■ Discern hidden values ■ Evaluate evidence ■ Assess conclusions ○ How do they know that? ○ What is the person’s agenda? ○ Does the evidence justify a cause-effect conclusion? ○ What alternative explanations are possible? ○ Helps clear the colored lenses of our biases ■ Does climate change threaten our future? Is it human caused? ● 2010, climate-change skeptics perceived North American bitter cold and East Coast blizzards as discounting global warming ● Critical thinkers say “show me the evidence” ■ Over time, is the Earth actually warming? Are there polar ice caps melting? Are vegetation patterns changing? Is human activity spewing gases that would lead us to expect such changes? ● Critical thinkers look at evidence ○ Do the facts support them, or are they making stuff up?) ● Recognize multiple perspectives ● THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD ○ Someone might discount evolution as “only a theory” ○ Theory - explains behaviors/events by offering ideas that organize what we have observed ■ Organize facts, theory simplifies ○ Hypothesis - a good theory that produces testable predictions ○ Operational definitions ■ ex) sleep deprived may be defined as “X hours less” than the person’s natural sleep ■ Using carefully worded statements, others can replicate (repeat) the original observations with different participants ● Similar results = confidence in the finding’s reliability grows ○ Theory will be USEFUL if it: ■ Organizes a range of self-reports and observations ■ Implies predictions that anyone can use to check the theory or to derive practical applications ■ Stimulates further research that leads to a revised theory that better organizes/predicts what we know ○ Using DESCRIPTIVE METHODS, CORRELATION METHODS, and EXPERIMENTAL METHODS ● DESCRIPTION ○ Case studies - in depth analysis of individuals or groups ○ Naturalistic observations - watching and recording the natural behavior of many individuals ○ Surveys and interviews - asking people questions ■ ex) much of our early knowledge about the brain came from case studies on individuals that who suffered a particular impairment after damage to a certain brain region ● Intensive cases can show us what CAN happen ● NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION ○ Naturalistic observations - records behavior in natural environments ■ Descriptions can be revealing ■ ex) chimpanzees sometimes can insert a stick into a termite mound and withdraw it, eating the stick’s load of termites ○ Illuminate human behavior ■ ex) humans laugh 30 times more often in social situations than in solitary situations ● THE SURVEY ○ Survey - asks people to report their behavior or opinion ■ Answers often depend on how questions are worded and respondents are chosen ■ Even subtle changes in the order of wording of questions can have major effects ● People are much more approving of “aid to the needy” than of “welfare” or “affirmative action” than of “preferential treatment” ■ In everyday thinking, we tend to generalize from samples we observe ● Given: ○ Statistical summary of a professor’s student evaluations ○ The vivid comments of a biased sample ● Attempt to ignore the sampling bias and generalize from a few vivid cases ■ How do you obtain a representative sample of the students at your college or university? ● How do you choose a group that would represent the total student population? ● Typically, you would seek a random sample (in which every person in the entire group has an equal chance of participating ● CORRELATION ○ Naturalistic observations and surveys show us that one trait/behavior is related to another ■ Correlation coefficient - statistical measure help us figure how closely two things cary together and how they predict one another ● Help us see the world more clearly by revealing the extent to which two things relate ○ Regression towards the mean ■ Illusory correlation - when we believe there is a relationship between two things and are likely to notice and recall confirming instances more that disconfirming instances ● Feed an illusionary control - that chance events are subject to our personal control ● Illusion that uncontrollable events correlate with our actions is also fed by statistical phenomenon (regression towards the mean) ○ Average results are more typical than extreme results ○ Correlation and causation ■ Correlations do not come with built-in cause and effect arrows ■ Help us predict ● ex) self-esteem correlates negatively with depression ● The lower people’s self-esteem, the more they are at risk for depression ● EXPERIMENTATION ○ Experiment - to find answers to such questions ○ Manipulate the factors of interest ○ Holding constant “controlling” other factors ○ Experimental groups - people receive the treatment and contrast the control group that does not receive the treatment ■ Minimize the preexisting differences between the groups researchers randomly assign people to two conditions ● Random numbers table or flip a coin (equalize two groups) ○ Double-blind procedure ■ Neither of the participants nor those who administer the drug and collect the data will know which group is receiving the treatment ● Researchers check a treatments actual effects apart from the participants’ and staff’ belief in its healing powers ○ Independent and dependent variables ■ Independent variable - vary it independently of other factors ■ Confounding variables - influence the results of the experiment ■ Dependent variable - depending on what takes place during the experiment ● Both variables are given the precise operational definitions (specify the procedures that manipulate the independent variable or measure the dependent variable ■ Variable - anything that can vary CHAPTER 5 ● DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES, PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT, AND THE NEWBORN ○ Examines physical, cognitive, and social development across lifespan ○ Nature and nurture: how does our genetic inheritance (nature) interact with our experiences? ○ Continuity and stages: what parts of development are gradual and continuous? ○ Stability and change: which of our traits persist through life? How do we change as we age? ● CONTINUITY AND STAGES ○ Emphasis on biological mutation tend to see development as a sequence of genetically predisposed stages ○ KOHLBERG ■ Emphasized thinking over acting ■ Adult life does not progress through a fixed series of steps ■ Suggest how people of one age think and act differently when they arrive at a later age ■ Preconventional morality -> conventional morality -> postconventional morality for some ● STABILITY AND CHANGE ■ Widest smiles in childhood and college photos are later the ones who most likely enjoy marriage ■ 1 in 4 weakest smilers eventually divorced ■ As people grow older, personality gradually stabilizes ■ Some social attributes are much less stable than temperament ● PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND NEWBORN ○ Conception ■ Egg develops inside grandmother ■ Mother is born with all immature eggs ■ Father began developing sperm cells at a young age ■ After puberty, mother releases a mature egg ● Sperm reach egg release a digestive enzyme that ate away its protective coating ○ Prenatal development ■ Zygotes - fertilized egg ● Less than half survive beyond the first 2 weeks ■ Embryo - zygote’s inner cells ● Outer cells become the placenta (transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to embryo) ■ Teratogens - viruses that can damage the fetus ● Why women are advised to not drink while they are pregnant ○ Fetus can depress the activity in both central nervous systems ● Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) - lifelong physical and mental abnormalities ○ Fetal damage can occur b/c alcohol has an epigenetic effect (leaves chemical marks on DNA that switch genes abnormally on or off) ● Early delivery can be caused by extreme stress ○ Competent newborn ■ Coordinated sequences of reflexes when they open their mouths ■ William James ● Presumed that newborn experience a “blooming, buzzing confusion” ■ Habituation - a decrease in responding with repeated stimulation ● ex) fetuses adapting to a vibrating, honking device played on their mother’s abdomen ● Stimulus gets the attention when first presented ● REPETITION = WEAKER RESPONSE ● As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a stimulus, interest wanes and they look away sooner ■ Maturation - orderly sequence of biological growth ● Severe deprivation/abuse can slow development ● PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ○ Brain development ■ Brain formed nerve cells at rates of nearly one quarter million per minute ■ Neural hardware and cognitive software develop together ● At birth, most brain cells you’ll ever have ● After birth, neural networks enabled you to walk, talk, etc ● Ages 3-6 rapid growth in frontal lobe (rational planning) ● Last areas to develop (linked to thinking. Memory, and language) ○ Fiber pathways supporting agility, language, and self-control proliferate into puberty ○ PRUNING = shuts down unused links ○ Motor development ■ Enables physical coordination ■ Sequences of physical (motor) development is universal ● Rolling over before they can sit unsupported ■ Behaviors reflect a maturing nervous system ■ 25% babies walk by 11 months ■ Genes guide motor development ■ MATURATION - creates our readiness to learn walking ○ Brain maturation and infant memory ■ Our earliest conscious memories seldom predate our third birthdays ● Infantile amnesia in children who have experienced an emergency fire evacuation caused by a burning popcorn maker ● COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ○ Piaget ■ Studied cognitive development (mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating ■ Where some thought of childish mistakes, Piaget saw intelligence ■ A child’s mind is not a miniature model of an adult ● Children think in “wildly illogical ways about problems whose solutions are self-evident to adults” ● Believed that a child’s mind develops through a series of stages, in an upward march from the newborn’s simple reflexes to the adult’s abstract reasoning power ■ Our intellectual progression reflects an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences ■ Maturing brain builds SCHEMAS (concepts/mental molds into which our experiences ● By adulthood, we have built schemas (cats, dogs, love, etc) ■ How do we use and adjusts our schemas? ● Assimilate - interpret them in terms of our current understandings (schemas) of our experiences ○ ex) having a dog (toddler may call all four-legged animals dogs) ● As we interact with the world, we ACCOMMODATE our schemas ○ Child learns that a dog schema is too broad, accommodating refines the category ■ Piaget’s theory and current thinking ● Four stages ○ Sensorimotor ■ From birth to age 2, babies take in the world through their senses and actions (through looking, thinking, hearing) ■ Showed an infant an appealing toy and then flopped a beret over it, ceasing it to exist ● Young infants lack object permanence (awareness that objects continue to exist ○ Preoperational ○ Concrete operational ○ Formal operation LECTURE 2 ● SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF INQUIRY ● PSEUDOSCIENCE ○ Common sense is often uncommon ● PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE ○ Science is an approach to evidence, a toolbox of skills used to prevent us from fooling ourselves ○ Communalism - willingness to share our data ○ Disinterestedness - attempt to be objective when evaluating evidence (objectivity) ● What is a hypothesis? ○ ● What is an independent/dependent variable? ● Electroshock therapy (social psychology experiment) ○ Explains the painfulness of the shocks and watches the subjects ○ Other experimental group ■ Makes the experiment less pain and severity of the therapy ■ Shows how the rooms they can wait in separate rooms or one big room together ■ Passes out questionnaire for intensity of preference and preference ○ Dependent variable - reflects the influence of the independent variable ○ Schacter’s Experimental Design ■ Measure relationship between fear/anxiety and need to be with real people ■ People in total isolation was a debilitating experience (anxiety and fear) ■ Hypothesis: one condition when people are fearful or anxious will they want to be with someone else ■ Isolate the variables and manipulate them under controlled conditions ■ Two groups: ● One high fear ● One low fear ○ INDEPENDENT VARIABLE - ● Intensity of the subject’s preference ○ INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ■ Manipulated by the experimenter ○ CONDITION ■ A different amount of something ○ POSITIVE CORRELATION ○ NEGATIVE CORRELATION ■ One positive, one negative ■ Correlation is not causation ● METHODOLOGY ○ Isolate - control - where is the most? ○ Hold the environment constant ○ Generalize (applicable) ■ Research done in a lab vs. research done in the real world ○ Theory ○ Hypothesis ○ Independent variable (manipulate) - conditions ○ Dependent variable (measure change) ○ Random selection ■ ○ Random assignment ■ To a condition ■ Representative of a sample ○ Conditions ○ Confounds ○ Deception ■ Exposing subjects to something that may not be true ■ People try to sabotage your research ■ Sometimes they try to help you ■ In order to measure human behaviors ○ Informed consent ○ Replication ■ Studies can be replicable ■ Other people can replicate research ■ Before something becomes a fact, it must be replicated many times ■ Inconsistency in the findings ● Counterresults ● SCIENTIFIC METHOD ○ Observation ■ Make an observation ■ Researcher notices some aspect of behavior that is puzzling, problematic, or just interesting and plan an investigation to shed some light on the phenomenon ○ Theory ■ Put forth a theory to explain the observation ■ Answer why, explains, educates, guess-- verbal statement as opposed to a mathematical expression ○ Hypotheses ■ Make predictions/hypotheses ■ Predictions, testable ■ Provides conceptual framework to explain existing observations and predict new ones ■ We do not prove hypotheses ■ We either reject/fail to reject them ○ Procedures ■ Methods to test the hypothesis ● Experimental methods ● Survey methods ● Observational methods ● Testing methods (IQ, aptitude tests) ● Case study (concentration is on a few subjects) ● Correlation designs (unethical/illogical to do an experimental method) ○ Experimental Design ■ Random selection ■ Random assignment ● Experimental group ● Control group ○ Placebo ● Independent variable ● Dependent variable ● Control for extraneous variables ■ Advantage ● Can make a causal statement, infer causation ■ If A increases, B should increase ■ Disadvantages ● Less generalizable ● Limited by ethics ● Limited by practicality Correlation study Can vary from -1 to +1 0 means no relationship Advantages Ethics Practical Generalizable Disadvantages not causal ○ Experimental Research Pitfalls ■ Experimenter expectancy effect (Rosenthal effect) ● When he got the right answers, he would nod his head and not realize ● Solution: double-blind design ■ Hawthorne effect (Demand characteristics) ● Solution: covert observation, participant observation ■ Evaluation measures ● Reliability ● Validity ○ Results ■ ○ Discussion ● PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ○ Combination of nature and nurture ■ Children grow bt maturation and by learning through interaction w/ environment ■ Is not one continuous progression of change (one stage to the next) ● STRANGER ANXIETY ○ Infants at 9-13 months fear strangers ■ Explore ■ If stranger approaches, they fear them ■ Children develop schemas ○ Attachment - emotional tie to caregiver ■ Desire for closeness ■ Harlow’s monkey studies ● Lack of formulation ● Deficits as adults ● Could not socialize as adults ● Tackle stimulation ○ Imprint - become rigidly attached ○ Mary Ainsworth ■ Secure attachment ● 60% feel less stressed when mother leaves, seek contact when she returns ○ Anxious style ■ Insecure attachment ● Clinging to mother, less likely to explore environment ○ Avoidant style ■ Indifference to mother’s departure and return ○ Age range ■ Birth-2 years ● Sensorimotor ○ Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping) ● Developmental phenomena ○ Object permanence ○ Stranger anxiety ○ Age range ■ 2-6/7 years ● Preoperational ○ Representing things with words and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning ■ Pretend play ■ Egocentrism ○ Age range ■ 7-11 years ● Concrete operational ○ Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations ■ conservation ■ Mathematical transformations ○ Age range ■ 12-adulthood ● Formal operational ○ Abstract reasoning ■ Abstract logic ■ Potential for mature moral reasoning ● STAGES OF LIFE ○ Fetal life ■ Responding to sounds/adapting to sounds they hear in the womb ■ Can habituate to annoying sounds, becoming less agitated w/ repeated exposure ○ Inborn skills ■ Reflexes - do not have to be learned ■ The rooting reflex ​- touch infant’s cheek, they turn their head and open their mouth ■ Sucking reflex ​- fingertip/pacifier ● Crying when hungry ● Have an affinity to faces ○ Baby memory ■ INFANTILE AMNESIA ● Brain forms memories so differently from episodic memory of adulthood that most people cannot recall memories from first 3 years of life ■ LEARNING SKILLS ● Procedural memories ○ ex) 3 month old can learn and recall specific movement ● MATURATION ○ Changes with passage of time for the body to mature ○ Biologically driven growth and developmental enabling orderly (sequential) changes in behavior ○ Experience (nurture) can adjust timing ○ Maturation (nature) sets the sequence ● COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ○ COGNITION ■ Mental activities that help us function ○ SCHEMAS ■ Mental container that holds our experiences ■ Infant’s mind tries to make sense of the world ○ Assimilation ■ Referring to cat as a dog ○ Accommodation ■ Develop separate schema for a car (2 separate ideas) LECTURE 3 ● WAYS OF LOOKING AT THE SELF ○ freudian/psychodynamic views of the unconscious parts of the self ○ Humanistic view of the self ● PERSONALITY ○ An individual’s characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors ■ ex) Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs ● Agreeable, open, introvert, naive, sensitive, reactive, neurotically irritable ● PSYCHODYNAMIC ○ Focus on the inner forces that interact to make us who we are ○ Behavior and human emotions and personality develop a dynamic (interacting, changing) ■ Interplay between conscious ● FREUD’S PATH TO DEVELOPING PSYCHOANALYSIS ○ Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) started his career as a Vienna physician ○ Decided to explore how mental/physical symptoms could be caused by purely psychological factors ○ Became aware that many powerful mental processes operate in the UNCONSCIOUS - without our awareness ○ Insight grew into a theory of the structure of human personality and its development ● PSYCHOANALYSIS ○ Techniques for revealing the unconscious mind: ■ Free association​: encouraged a patient to spread whatever comes to mind, then therapist verbally traces a flow of thoughts into the past and into the unconscious ● If he had a lower level than the therapist ● Patient is dependent on the therapist ■ Suggested meanings for slips of the tongue ● “Good morning, beheaded - uh, I mean, beloved.” ■ And for the “latent” content of dreams ● FREUD’S PERSONALITY/MIND ICEBERG ○ Larger part of the iceberg is underneath the water ○ Mind is mostly below the surface of conscious awareness ○ Personality develops from the efforts of our
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