[AMH 2020] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (18 pages long)

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AMH 2020
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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American History: Chapter 17 Notes
Homestead Act of 1862: promised free land to any citizen or prospective citizen who would live
on it and farm it for 5 years
Homesteaders moved to the Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansa, Oklahoma, and across the Rockies
The Westward movement produced a clash of cultures
Key terms:
T ranscontinental R ailroad
"P eace P olicy"
Union P acific R ailroad
"G alloping D epartment S tore"
C entral P acific R ailroad
B attle of L ittle B ig H orn
Indian S chools
G hos t D ance
P romontory P oint
B attle of Wounded K nee
"T he G reat American D esert"
Helen H unt J ackson and "A C entury of D is honor"
1862 H omes tead Act
D awes Act of 1877
J os eph G lidden and barbed wire
C raz y H orse
T he L ong D rive
S itting B ull
The gilded age: 1877 through the mid-1890s
Mark Tai used the gilded age to ritiize the glitter ad flashiess of the ties that asked
the ugliness and pursuit of wealth and materialism in the United States
The Gilded Age as a e tie i Aeria’s histor
o Old times moved much slower, Americans were not used to such rapid change
Presidents, at the time, did not take an active leadership role- The Forgettale Presidets
The traditioal Wester iages oos, agos, et. are fro a period that ol lasted
about 20 years
Westerns were written to civilize the west and to encourage settlers to make their way there
Brutal Native American encounter stories were fueled by fear and misunderstanding
Most cowboys were ethnic minorities who worked hard and long days and splurged their money
on frivolous things
Railroads began in the United States in the 1820s and 1830s, with the first one being the
Baltimore and Ohio railroad
The Union Pacific Railroad started in Omaha, Nebraska and went westward, whereas the Central
Pacific Railroad started in Sacramento and went Eastward
The Central Pacific Railroad was built through the Sierra Nevada by Chinese laborers, and the
Union Pacific was built by Irish laborers
On May 10th, 1869, the two Railroads met- this was a headlining event
The government gave land and money to the railroads in order to get the job done, excess land
was then later sold to speculators
I , )eulo Pike deeed the Great Aeria Desert Great Plais uliale. Hoeer,
this myth was ended in the 1850s when people started moving westward
Problems with the Homestead Act of 1865:
o Fraud- Land speculators paid people to lay at least a foundation of a house and a few
seeds because there were few government inspectors travelling West
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o Railroads held a good portion of the most desirable land
o 160 acres was not enough land to sufficiently make profit in the age of mechanization
it was only good for subsistence, family farming
o Lack of rainfall, grasshoppers and locusts, violent thunderstorms, tornadoes
By the 1890s, the image of a farmer was no longer romanticized, and country folks and farmers
were viewed as backwards and uneducated
The businessman and industrialist started to become admired
Ranching was a Mexican industry by its heritage, and ranchers were not so often white males
Cattle ranching became profitable after the Civil War because of the increasing demand for beef
from the East, and because of free government grazing land
The attle drie as the trails i hih farers led attle to plaes like Ailee, KS to be driven
to Chicago to become steak
Joseph Glidden invented barbed wire to keep cattle out of crops
Rage Wars ourred etee sheep farers ad attlee, leadig to the shootig eah
other’s herds
An increase in cattle per farmer led to overgrazing and too much competition for food
The winter of 1885-1886 was a brutally cold one that led to frozen cattle and a lack of grass for
them to graze on
The summer of 1886 brought drought conditions- grass did not grow and water bodies dried up
The winter of 1886-1887 brought the same weather conditions as the previous one, leading to
more loss of cattle
The ope rage idustr haged- barbed wire to keep cattle fenced in, planted hay for winter
food, built shelters for cattle, and kept smaller herds (Quality over Quantity)
Gold was discovered in California in 1849- the first economic boom to the West
o This was followed by gold in Colorado in 1859, Silver in Nevada, gold in the Black Hills of
Dakota in 1874, and copper in Arizona (Anacosta mine) in 1881
Mining creating Boom Towns, which were poor living conditions and home to vigilante justice
Married women felt that being dragged West by their husbands was them being torn away from
civilization, family, and friends
Single women headed West for prostitution, to escape Victorian morality, to set up laundries,
saloons, or boarding houses, or to cook
Many married women had to engage in such activities to support the family after their husbands
failed to strike it rih, ad if their husads ere killed, many women turned to prostitution to
make a living
After surface ores were depleted, ghost towns were created until large corporations came in to
mine what was under the surface, many mines large enough to last several years (Anacosta
Copper Mine, Virginia City, NV, etc.)
Maifest Desti: the idea that hite Aerias ere God’s hose people destied to spread
their vision of America across the continent, regardless of who or what was in their way
Native Americans often watched from afar as travelers moved West, and did not attack wagon
trains as we have been taught to believe
In the 1850s, the government forced dozens of tribes in Kansas and Nebraska to cede 15 million
acres of land- the egiig of Poli of Coetratio Reseratio sste
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