COM1000 Ch 5.docx

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COM 1000
Karisa Workman

Listening (Ch 5) • Successful face-to-face communication requires participation from speaker and listener • We spend more time listening (24%) than any other activity each day • Denotative vs. connotative meaning – denotative is literal definition of a word, connotative is implied meaning of a word based on context Hearing and listening • Hearing – physical process of receiving sound • Listening – receiving, attending to, and assigning meaning to aural and visual stimuli • We listen with our eyes as well as our ears o We believe what we see when it contradicts with what we hear (i.e. Saying you’re happy when your face shows you’re upset) • Systems model of listening o Factors outside of sender-listener interaction are considered o Presage – personal factors and the context in which listening occurs  Person factors: specific knowledge, world knowledge, ability, memory span, motivation, listening capacity  Listening context: objectives, purpose, climate, interactivity, status, power, conversational rules, speaker characteristics o Process – actual mechanics of listening  Mental processes  Overt behavior – nodding head and eye contact o Product – outcomes of process  Knowledge acquisition – understanding something new  Relationship building - satisfaction, self-disclosure  Affective – empathy, motivation 5 Ways of listening (think of tree model) • Discriminatively (roots) o Can distinguish certain noises (bird chirp vs. person talking) o Allows us to know how a language sounds • Cognitively (trunk) o Information acquisition, storage, retrieval o Used to understand a message in order to remember it later • Therapeutically (branches) o Listening sympathetically and trying to comfort o Simply being there for someone and listening to what they have to say without judgment • Critically (branches) o To evaluate the merits of the message o Like when listening to a debate when voting for the first time • Appreciatively (branches) o Actively listening to and engaging with the sound, music, words, and blends that are produced Listening Styles • Listening styles change based on situation • Research indicates it is somewhat difficult to change listening style once you have yours • People oriented – have high regard for the speaker’s feelings and seek to find common ground with them o Enjoy harmony and commonality o Aka “relationally oriented”, are more extraverted and more conversationally sensitive • Action oriented – like concise, succinct info that is free of mistakes o Frustrated by disorganized presentation o “Task oriented” • Content oriented – prefer challenging and complex messages o More drawn to evaluate facts and strengths of argument o Often unbiased • Time oriented – prefer brief listening encounters o Let others know they have limited time to spend interacting o Will interrupt others in order to move interaction along Listening Styles and Personality • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator – measures personality o Introversion vs. extraversion o Intuiting (intuition) vs. sensing (using senses) o Thinking vs. feeling o Judging vs. perceiving • Feelers and intuitors – more strongly related to people-oriented listening • Thinkers – small relation to action, conte
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