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PSY 2012
Charles Negy

Chapter 5: Sensation and Perception  Sensory information is all around us during every single second of our lies.  Sense organs are constantly bombarded with sensory information that our brains sift through and process in order to determine what is important versus what can be ignored.  We have five sense organs: 1. Eyes 2. Nose 3. Skin 4. Ears 5. Tongue  Sensory receptor cells- transforms physical energy or information into neural information. Examples are: eyes- light waves, ears-sound waves, nose-pick up molecules, tongue-register chemicals, and skin any force that physically presses it  Sensation- when these various forms of physical energy simulate our sense organs and this info. Is transmitted back to the central nervous center  Perception- refers to when our brains organize and interpret the sensations  Psychophysics- studies relations between the physical characteristics of stimuli and sensory capabilities, is concerned with two kinds of sensitivity: 1. Absolute limits of sensitivity 2. Differences between stimuli  Absolute threshold of stimulus detected 50% of the time Light and the Eye:  Cornea- bulge at the center of the eye extends outward to capture the light waves  Astigmatism- when the cornea is misshaped. This will cause the light waves to be distorted (impaired vision)  Aqueous humor- watery fluid filling the anterior chamber of the eye  Glaucoma- when either the aqueous humor is produced in excess or when a drainage problem causes the water to build up  Pupil- light passes through it (it is the black center of the eye)  Iris- regulates the amount of light that actually enters into the eye (patch of tissue that gives eye its color)  Lens- light passes through it. Its function is to focus images on the retina (does so by accommodating light). Made up of protein fiber and is flexible. Extends itself becoming thicker, or flattens itself depending on how far the object is. Two common problems are: 1. Cataracts-opaque clouds that often form over the eyes. Impair vision and are caused by some extensive exposure to radiation 2. Presbyopia- result of accumulated fiber; the lens gets impacted and becomes increasingly less flexible. Diminishes ability to focus on objects. LASER SURGERY CAN CORRECT PROBLEMS  Vitreous humor- clear, thick fluid filling the interior eye chamber. Its function is to maintain an optimum shape of the eye (aids vision)  Myopia- near sightness (only being able to focus well on objects near by)  Hyperopia- far sightness (only being able to focus on objects at the distance)  Floaters- make their way in and block the passage of light.  Retina-innermost later. It contains the photoreceptor cells, which are rods and cones. 1. Rods-help us in dim-light or dark condition 2. Cones- aids in visual acuity and in seeing in lighted conditions and help us seeing colors. Concentrated at fovea  Both rods and cones transform physical energy into neural energy. The neural energy info travels from the eye to the brain by means of optic nerve- attached to the back of the eye  Blind spot- objects that are not in our visual field  Usually blind spots for one eye aren’t the same of the other eye. Hearing:  The ear can be divided into 3 parts: 1. Outer ear- attached to both sides of our head. It extends outward from the head and tries to capture as many sound waves as possible and direct the waves through the ear canal to the ear drums (thin membrane that vibrates in response to sound waves and then relays the waves further) 2. Middle ear contains eardrum and 3 small bones (hammer, anvil and stirrup) They all perform the function of vibrating and transmitting sound waves. Overall function is to amplify sound waves. 3. Inner ear- oval window vibrates in response to the stirrup of the middle ear and transmits them to the cochlea. Help balance the pressure in the inner ear. Cochlea is a bony tube and contains the basilar membrane (coiled up inside the cochlea) and the organ of Corti (hair-like receptor cells responsible for converting physical sounds waves into neural impulses) Neural impulses are sent back into the brain for processing via the auditory nerve. 4. Neuroses- unresolved psychological issues Chapter 6: Learning  Learning-permanent change in behavior, thoughts, beliefs and attitudes. It is more or less permanent. Ability to learn is very important.  Ivan Pavlov- Russian psychologist. Researched salivation in digestion (dogs) He collected the saliva with a tube called gastric fistula.  He discovered classical conditioning- learning through association (pavlovian) 1. US- Unconditioned Stimulus 2. UR- Unconditioned Response 3. CS- Conditioned Stimulus 4. Conditioned Response  US elicits UR naturally  CS & CR is the point when only the bell sound causes salivation.  The CS must always be presented before  Spontaneous Recovery- it takes only a few trials to re-learn because learning is more or less permanent  Stimulus generalization- reacts to every type of bell  Stimulus discrimination- will only react to the exact bell sound  Both generalization and discrimination depend on the intelligence and the importance of the Unconditioned Stimulus Fears, Phobias and “Little Albert”  John B. Watson- wanted to demonstrate that phobias could be acquired via classical condition. Experiment of little kid touching rat (because he associated rats with terrifying noise.) He also reacted to fuzzy objects that symbolized a rat. Classical or Pavlovian conditioning is considered one fundamental way in which learning occurs. Operant conditioning (operant learning, instrumental conditioning/learning)  Based on the work of Edward L. Thorndike  Law of effect-responses followed by satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated under similar circumstances.  Learning takes place because of consequences.  Operant conditioning occurs voluntarily  3 broad types of instrumental learning: 1. Positive reinforcement- giving something positive will make you want to do it again. (the action doesn’t have to be necessarily good) Examples are paying for doing something or laughing at a joke 2. Negative reinforcement- a behavior is performed in order to remove an aversive stimulus. Basically you try to stop something. (Example, alarm clock sound) because you know it will work 3. Punishment- trying to correct a behavior or castigate someone because of unacceptable behavior.  Reinforcers and punishers 1. Primary reinforcement- anything that is inherently pleasant and rewarding 2. Secondary reinforcemtn- learned to be associated with primary nd st Example: Money(2 )->buy stuff (1 ) 3. Primary punisher- anything that is inherently unpleasant 4. Secondary punisher- associated with primary Example: F-> bad grade Ticket-> lost income Shaping  Way people learn complex behaviors  Consists of using reinforcement, withholding of reinforcemtn and sometimes punishment to get someone or an animal to the overall target behavior. Token may be given to reward and later can be cashed for a prize. Corporal punishment as a form  Intentional infliction of pain for the purpose of correcting or controlling someone who has committed an offense  Correlation between corporal punishment of children and aggression, anxiety and depression  Physical punishment of children also is correlated with antisocial behavior  There has been found a correlation between corporal punishment of children and aggression, anxiety, and depression  Spencer 1999 Other two fundamental ways learning occurs: 1. Observation- seeing other people and imitating them 2. Insight- light bulb goes off in our heads and we suddenly know how to solve a problem Chapter 7- Memory  Memory is the ability to retain and retrieve information. Memory is important because it helps us adapt to our environment Distorted Memories:  Jean Piaget believed that something had happened when it did not. He concluded that even though he could have sworn to see it; somebody must of simply told him and he incorporated the story to i
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