# [STA 1063C] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (10 pages long)

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6 Feb 2017
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STA 1063C
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Statistics, Chapter 1
Lesson 1: An Overview of Statistics
What is Statistics?
o The science of collecting, organizing, and interpreting data to make decisions
Data consist of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or
responses
Types of data sets:
o Population: the collection of all responses that are of interest
o Sample: a subset of the population
Parameter: a number that describes a population characteristic, generally Greek letters
Statistic: a number that describes a sample characteristic, usually letters with a bar/hat
over it
Branches of statistics
o Descriptive statistics: organizing, summarizing, and displaying data
o Inferential statistics: involves using sample data to draw conclusions about a
population
Examples
A Gallup Poll is interested in the percent of American adult males that use the internet at
least once aa day. A random sample of 1540 American adult males is taken, and 54% use
the internet at least once a day.
o What is the population? American adult males
o What is the sample? 1540 American adult males
o What is the variable? Do they use the internet at least once a day?
o Is 54% a parameter or a statistic? Statistic, it is based on the sample.
Lesson 2: Data Classification
Quantitative: values of x are numerical measurements
Qualitative: vales of x are categories
Levels of measurement:
o Nominal “name only”- qualitative only, categorized using names, labels, or
qualities. No mathematical computations can be made, such as gender or eye
color
o Ordinal- qualitative or quantitative date can be arranged in order but differences
are not meaningful, such as class standing (year) or motion picture ratings (G, PG,
etc.)
o Interval- quantitative only, can be ordered and differences can be calculated. Zero
represents a position on a scale, not an inherent zero. Temperature is an example.
An inherent zero implies none. For example, if you scored perfectly on
your first lab, you have 0 mistakes.
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o Ratio: quantitative only, similar to interval but a zero entry is an inherent zero. A ratio
of two data entries can be meaningfully formed. Lab grades are an example.
Think- does twice as much make sense? If it does, it is a ratio.
Experimental design: designing a statistical study
o Identify population and variable(s) of interest
o Decide how to collect the data, then collect it
o Use descriptive statistics on data collected
o Make inferences about the population
Data Collection
o Experiment: apply a treatment to part of the group
o Simulation: use a mathematical model (often with a computer) to reproduce a
condition
o Census: a count or measure of the entire population
o Sampling: a count or measure of part of the population
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