# [STA 1063C] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (10 pages long)

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STA 1063C

MIDTERM EXAM

STUDY GUIDE

Statistics, Chapter 1

Lesson 1: An Overview of Statistics

What is Statistics?

o The science of collecting, organizing, and interpreting data to make decisions

Data consist of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or

responses

Types of data sets:

o Population: the collection of all responses that are of interest

o Sample: a subset of the population

Parameter: a number that describes a population characteristic, generally Greek letters

Statistic: a number that describes a sample characteristic, usually letters with a bar/hat

over it

Branches of statistics

o Descriptive statistics: organizing, summarizing, and displaying data

o Inferential statistics: involves using sample data to draw conclusions about a

population

Examples

A Gallup Poll is interested in the percent of American adult males that use the internet at

least once aa day. A random sample of 1540 American adult males is taken, and 54% use

the internet at least once a day.

o What is the population? American adult males

o What is the sample? 1540 American adult males

o What is the variable? Do they use the internet at least once a day?

o Is 54% a parameter or a statistic? Statistic, it is based on the sample.

Lesson 2: Data Classification

Quantitative: values of x are numerical measurements

Qualitative: vales of x are categories

Levels of measurement:

o Nominal “name only”- qualitative only, categorized using names, labels, or

qualities. No mathematical computations can be made, such as gender or eye

color

o Ordinal- qualitative or quantitative date can be arranged in order but differences

are not meaningful, such as class standing (year) or motion picture ratings (G, PG,

etc.)

o Interval- quantitative only, can be ordered and differences can be calculated. Zero

represents a position on a scale, not an inherent zero. Temperature is an example.

An inherent zero implies none. For example, if you scored perfectly on

your first lab, you have 0 mistakes.

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o Ratio: quantitative only, similar to interval but a zero entry is an inherent zero. A ratio

of two data entries can be meaningfully formed. Lab grades are an example.

Think- does twice as much make sense? If it does, it is a ratio.

Experimental design: designing a statistical study

o Identify population and variable(s) of interest

o Decide how to collect the data, then collect it

o Use descriptive statistics on data collected

o Make inferences about the population

Data Collection

o Experiment: apply a treatment to part of the group

o Simulation: use a mathematical model (often with a computer) to reproduce a

condition

o Census: a count or measure of the entire population

o Sampling: a count or measure of part of the population

find more resources at oneclass.com

find more resources at oneclass.com