U.S. History: 1492-1877 Study Guide for Final Exam (Part 2) - 4.0ed this course

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Department
American History
Course Code
AMH 2010
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All

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US History AMH 2010 Unit Exam I Study Guide (Chapter 1 through Chapter 3) General Themes: -Land • Molds the way colonies settle, colonization borders, natural resources, geography, environment -Freedom • Inconsistent because of slaves and natives • Documents, laws, rights, possessions, voting, opportunity -Community -New beginnings Land (Concepts) Usufruct -Collective use of the land -Nobody owns land; land is SHARED European vs. Native American concepts -Europeans saw land as something to be used; profit from it; individual ownership -Native Americans were spiritual with the land Euro-American opposing views - Garden of Eden - -Place of savagery and barbarism when not civilized Columbian Exchange Biological exchanges -Diseases (demographic catastrophe) Cultural exchanges - Indians and Spanish ways of life Freedom (American Ideals) Inconsistent or Commitment -Inconsistent about applying freedom historically (Slaves, women, Jews, Indians) Feeling or Notion -What you feel that you have compared to what you had before -Ex: Immigrants coming to America for freedom; dress how you like/drive a certain car; Henry Ford producing automobiles Greed & Patriotism Laws & Rights Liberty vs. Order -How freedom has been balanced in US history Material Abundance Frontiers White: Middle Ground -Process of interaction between Native Americans and colonists whose interaction that was not clear-cut -Never truly English America or Native America -Process of American experience was a “Middle Ground” where compromise and negotiation of cultures mixed and interacted. This process of cultural interaction produced varied forms of: 1) Adaptation 2) Acculturation 3) Assimilation End result: cultural interactions and clashes creates whole new culture Bailyn: Transplantations -The process of American experience was a form of adaptation and response to the environment from the European point of view towards an extension of their own culture 1) A migration to America as an extended domestic migration 2) That settlement and development differentiated according to geography, demography, economics, and religion 3) A process of land speculation and labor development Turner: Exceptionalism -The process of American experience was a continuous advancement that produced the following: 1) Individual (sense of) 2) Loss of cultural background (Newness) 3) Cultural fusion 4) Absence of authority 5) Freedom An American “uniqueness” of common traits form our: 1) Settlement patterns 2) Equality or sense of democracy 3) Progress 4) Self reliance or autonomy Key Terms / Events / Individuals: European Colonial Exploration & Empires Incentives / Motivations - Profit - Adventure English Explorations (why) 1) Population growth and pressures 2) Rise of commercial incentives 3) Rise of nation-states – urbanization (cities and towns) 4) New ideas (Renaissance and Protestant Reformation) 5) New technologies (warfare and commercialization) 6) Evolution of nation-states (one centralized authority) 7) Find all water routes to Asia/China Enclosure Movement (problems) - Surplus of population - Dislocation of farmers - Lead food supply shortages Ireland (English colonization) -Subjugation model: English used this on Native Americans also; Irish are inferior and barbaric -Plantation model: Separation between Natives (Irish) and conqueror (English) Mercantilism -Idea that if the country doesn’t prosper, no one will prosper. The country controls the economy -Resources are limited – get as much as you can as quickly as you can -Always more exports than imports for PROFIT – sell more than you buy Navigation Acts -Get all trade to go through England on English ships; regulate trade to enhance profits for England as a whole Richard Hakluyt -Added new ideas toward colonization -The key to prosperity: Go abroad – alleviate poverty and unemployment, create whole new markets, bring raw materials Religious incentives -Protestant Reformation -leave Catholic church -English Reformation -Break away from Catholic church; King Henry was head of church and government -Different because there’s a political purpose -Keep Catholic structure, but Reformation values English Colonial Settlement: Chesapeake (Virginia): Land Ownership / Social Status / Tobacco / Labor Early Problems -Location -Malaria (swampy area) -Adventures (no necessary tools, had to borrow from Indians) John Smith -Put them to work and brought success and order to the colonies -Continued process of colonization (needed a system/structure - he brought that) DeLa Warr -Imposed system much more strictly and harshly; executed gameplan Turning Points (In the establishment of VA and the Chesapeake Region): -Tobacco (cash crop) -Expansion (land acquisition) -Headright system -Rights of Englishmen (House of Burgesses) -Labor (servitude and slavery) -Suppression of Indians - Adaptation of Indian agricultural techniques Headrights System -Promote land expansion -Brought a different group/diverse group units – transformed migration -Brought order to land settlement John Rolfe -Made tobacco prosperous (key crop) Tobacco -Key crop made prosperous by John Rolfe -Virginia and Maryland House of Burgesses -Provided measure of self government -Notion of religious freedom -Social status Bacons Rebellion -The rebellion creates not only a boundary line between Whites and Natives, but also a boundary between
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