U.S. History: 1492-1877 Study Guide for Final Exam (Part 3) - 4.0ed this course

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University of Central Florida
American History
AMH 2010

US History AMH 2010 Final Exam Study Guide (Chapters 9 & 11 & Chapters 13 & 14) General Themes: Indian Removal of 1830’s: Changing Attitudes towards Indians • They were considered savages and an obstacle to the American way of life and exposition • Barbaric politically and overall • Will never change • Must be moved Indian Removal Act of 1830 1. A federal law that appropriated money to finance negotiations with tribes aimed at relocating them to the west 2. The laws also had a provision allowing removal by force if necessary Five Civilized Tribes In order to be a civilized tribe: • Adopted white/ American ways • Accepted treaties in the past 1. Cherokee 2. Seminole 3. Chickasaw 4. Choctaw 5. Creed John Marshall Ruled in favor of letting Indians keep land but at the same time dehumanized them Andrew Jackson • An avid critic of Indians • Didn’t enforce Marshalls ruling with Cherokee Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia Natives can keep their land that was previously awarded through fed treaties BUT • “Ward of the state” • “Domestic dependent nation” Worcester vs. Georgia Natives can keep land BUT • “distinct political community in need of fed protection” w/no rights under law Treaty of New Echota Group of fed adgents acting under Jacksons guidelines gets a minority of Cherokee chief to sell land to US gov for 5.6 mill and free passage to the west Trail of Tears – forced march of Cherokees to Oklahoma during winter Nullification: Tariff of Abominations 1828 Raised tariff to protect manufacturing but Calhoun disagreed because it hurt agriculture South Carolina Exposition & Protest 1. Nullification: state conventions to hold elections to debate tyrannical fed laws and void if necessary 2. A proposed amendment to the constitution allowing nullification with ¾ state ratification Disquisition of Government 1. Allowing for amendment to constitution to elect 2 presidents 2. Concurrent majority: amendment to const providing equal authority to actual law making process Compromise of 1833 1. Tariff compromise: reduced tariff over 7 year period Olive Branch -peaceful comp Sword –you agreed w/ it so I have the right to cut you off 2. Force bill- president can use military force to collect tariff if not paid Carrot -Gave incentive and batted them into it Stick- going to force you to take bait Cotton Kingdom: Expansion of Cotton (Reasons) 1. Decline of tobacco 2. Growth of short staple cotton (new type of cotton) 3. Demand of textile industry (Brittan, France, North) Colonial Dependency to North 1. All southern capital and wealth was tied up in land and slaves (need north to trade) 2. Quest for profit- north at textiles and manufacturing to show profit (dress+furn) 3. Climate (too hot to manufacture) 4. Cavalier image Ideal Plantation 1. Owned 50 or more slaves 2. Owned 100 or more acres of land 3. Division of labor system (4 levels of slaves) Task or Gang System Task Slave had task for the day then they had rest of the day off (20 or less slaves) Better relationship with master Gang Overseer of a group of slaves who decides when they are done Slavery: “Peculiar Institution” • Its distinctive in the south then the rest of the world • They saw it as a benefit to the US an all of society • Interdependence (rich need slaves to have a better life) Planters • 12% • Owned 20+ slaves • 500 acres • Lived I delta regions (good irrigation) • Interrogated market economy and slave trade Small Slave Holders • Less than 20 slaves • 200-500 acres • lived in a close proximity to planter class Yeomen • No slaves • 50 to 100 acres • Lived in fertile upland hills • Family farmers People of Pine Barrens • No slaves • Didn’t own land (squatters) • Lived on infertile lands or swamps Southern Code of Honor Men had honor and would defend it through duels and contests Bigger gap between N + S on way of life Why did southern society support system? (Question of slavery) 1. Perception of race (poor white man status) 2. South is an unusually democratic society 3. The support of women and family structure 4. Social status (cavalier image/gentlemen) Slave Resistance 1. Rebellion 2. Gold bricking- do task slow 3. Run away escape (most common) Culture of Slavery: Language / Religion / Music / Dance Pidgen- slang of Basic English w/ African Expressive w/ religious undertones Spiritual music and dance Free in heaven African Americans view escapes reality of slavery Civil War: Causes of Civil War 1. Alternative interpretations of the constitution 2. Two irreconcilable views or destinies for America 3. Increased presence of the fed gov in issues surrounding sectionalism 4. No clear majority voice in America a after the1860 election End effects or impact of Civil War 1. The permanent nature of a powerful and centralized federal gov 2. An accelerated economic development of the north and the end of the southern way of life 3. The establishment of an enduring republican party in US history 4. The end of slavery 5. The start of new types of industrialization and its end result the captains of industry Antietam Key Terms / Events / Individuals: Jacksonian America Alexis De Tocqueville: Democracy & Equality • Notion of equality and opportunity • Warning- industrialization would under mine equality (need lower workers and votes could be bought) Equality of Opportunity- emphasized by democrats Mass Politics & Democratization Jacksonian Presidency 1. Democratic party was formed under him 2. Offer equal protection and benefit to all white male citizens was the theory • Suppressing minorities • Bring down elites • Get rid of ordered resistance Views of Andrew Jackson 1. He was president of the common man (equality to white males) 2. A frontier aristocrat (nobody to somebody) 3. King of the Mob- represented worst of Americans Spoils System • Incentive/ reward for supporting victor in power • Jackson wanted to replace old elites with new blood • Impact cacus - convention Bank War (Soft money vs. Hard money) Hard- money that was backed by gold (Jackson) Soft- gov prints money as necessary not backed (Biddle/national bank/investors) This created a partisan in gov when Jackson destroyed the bank he created a depression Henry Clay (American System) Improving internal economy • Have a national bank • Having a protective tariff (tax
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