US History: 1877 to Present Notes - Part 3

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American History
AMH 2020
All Professors

Abraham Lincoln was elected the sixteenth president of the United States. Approximately one month after his inauguration, the Civil War broke out between the northern states and the southern states. Although he was seen as shrewd military strategist, he was not favored by all because he was a northerner whom they thought was against slavery. This could be seen in the order he issued in 1863 called the Emancipation Proclamation. This order freed all slaves in the rebellious states. One person that did not favor President Lincoln was John Wilkes Booth. Ulysses S. Grant A general and political leader of the nineteenth century. He became commanding general of the Union army during the Civil War. He accepted the unconditional surrender of the commanding general of the main Confederate army, Robert E. Lee, at Appomattox Court House. A Republican, he later became president. Presidential Reconstruction Andrew Johnson attempted to carry out Lincoln's plan for the political Reconstruction of the 11 former states of the Confederacy Radical Reconstruction period beginning in 1867, when the Republicans, who had control in both houses of Congress, took charge of Reconstruction. The Radical Republicans passed four Reconstruction Acts in 1868: (1) ratify the Fourteenth Amendment; (2) write new state constitutions that guarantee freedmen the right to vote; (3) form new governments to be elected by all male citizens including African Americans. 13th Amendment 1865
Abolition of slavery (involuntary servitude).Congress has the power to enforce this via legislation. 14th Amendment 1868Citizenship given to ex-slaves.Three-fifths clause abolished.Leading ex- Confederates denied office.Ex-Confederates forced to repudiate their debts and pay pensions to their own (CSA) veterans, plus taxes for the pensions of Union veterans. Congress has the power to enforce this via legislation. 15th Amendment 1870
Suffrage given to black males.Congress has the power to enforce this via legislation. citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or previous condition of servitude Rutherford B. Hayes 19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes- Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history Congress of Industrial Organizations led by John Lewis, orginially began as a group of unskilled workers who organized themselves into effective unions. As there popularity grew they came known for the revolutionary idea of the "sit down strike", there efforts lead to the passage of the Fair Labor Standard Act and the organization continued to thrive under the New Deal.( page 790
-791) black codes laws made in 1865
-66 enacted by Southern state legislatures to give whites power over blacks; these laws were overrideen by Congress when the powers of the Freedman's Bureau were widened and when the First Civil Rights Act was passed in 1866 in defense of African American rights. Wade-Davis bill, veto, Wade Davis Manifesto: Congress, in July 1864, passed the Wade-Davis Bill, calling for a stricter form of Reconstruction than that proposed by Lincoln. After Lincoln pocket vetoed this bill, radicals sought to displace him. They issued Wade-Davis Manifest, which declared the primacy of Congress in matters of the Reconstruction. Andrew Carnegie Scottish-born industrialist who developed the U.S. steel industry; his is a rags-to- riches story as he made a fortune in business and sold his holdings in 190
1 for $447 million. He spent the rest of his life giving away $35
 million to worthy cultural and educational causes. scalawags name given by former confederates to those southerners who supported the shift in power to congress and the army in the south during reconstruction - southern republicans carpetbaggers A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes by buying up land from desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts. tenure of office act The 1867 Act prohibited the president from removing any official who had been appointed with the consent of the Senate without obtaining Senate approval. President Johnson challenged the act in 1868 when he dismissed Secretary of War Edwin M. Sta
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